Rolf Engg. Solutions Inc. supply and manufacture Stainless, Alloy and Carbon Steels.

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SS pipe grades.

A249/ A249M A269 A270 A778 A335/ A335M A691
A790 A312 A409 A554 A358/ A358M A928/ A928M

CS pipe Grades

A 106 A53 API5L A671 A672

ASTM Chemical Requirements

Elements 304L
(C) Carbon, max 0.030 0.030 0.08
(Mn) Manganese, max 2.00 2.00 2.00
(P) Phosphorus, max 0.045 0.045 0.045
(S) Sulfur, max 0.030 0.030 0.030
(Si) Silicon 1.00 1.00 1.00
(Ni) Nickel 8.00-13.00 10.00-14.00 9.00-12.00
(Cr) Chromium 18.00-20.00 16.00-18.00 17.00-19.00
(Mo) Molybdenum N/A 2.00 N/A
(Ti) Titaniu N/A N/A 5xC - 0.070
(N) Nitrogen 0.10 N/A N/A

ASTM Tensile Requirements

Grade Tensile Strength
min, ksi (Mpa)
Yield Strength
min, ksi (Mpa
Elong. In 2"
min, %
304L 70 (485) 25 (170 40
316L 70 (485) 25 (170) 40
321 75 (515) 30 (205) 40

Mechanical Testing Test
Test ASTM United
Flare Not Required Required
Flatten Required Required
Reverse Bend Not Required Required
Eddy Current Transverse Not Required Required
Tension Required Required


Designation: A 928/A 928M – 05

Standard Specification for
Ferritic/Austenitic (Duplex) Stainless Steel Pipe Electric
Fusion Welded with Addition of Filler Metal

This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 928/A 928M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope*
1.1 This specification covers electric-fusion-welded steel
pipe suitable for corrosive service.
NOTE 1—The dimensionless designator NPS (nominal pipe size) has
been substituted in this specification for traditional terms such as nominal
diameter, size, and nominal size.
1.2 This specification covers grades of ferritic/austenitic
steel as indicated in Table 1. The selection of the proper alloy
and requirements for heat treatment shall be at the discretion of
the purchaser, dependent on the service conditions to be
1.3 Five classes of pipe are covered as follows:
1.3.1 Class 1—Pipe shall be double welded by processes
using filler metal in all passes and shall be radiographed
1.3.2 Class 2—Pipe shall be double welded by processes
using filler metal in all passes. No radiograph is required.
1.3.3 Class 3—Pipe shall be single welded by processes
using filler metal in all passes and shall be radiographed
1.3.4 Class 4—Same as Class 3, except that the weld pass
exposed to the inside pipe surface is permitted to be made
without the addition of filler metal (see and
1.3.5 Class 5—Pipe shall be double welded by processes
using filler metal in all passes and shall be spot radiographed.
1.4 Supplementary requirements covering provisions ranging
from additional testing to formalized procedures for
manufacturing practice are provided. Supplementary Requirements
S1 through S4 are included as options to be specified in
the purchase order when desired.
1.5 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units
are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the
SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each
system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must
be used independently of the other. Combining values from the
two systems may result in nonconformance with the specification.
The inch-pound units shall apply unless the M designation
of the specification is specified in the order.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards: 2
A 240/A 240M Specification for Chromium and
Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip
for Pressure Vessels and General Applications
A 480/A 480M Specification for General Requirements for
Flat-Rolled Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate,
Sheet, and Strip
A 941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related
Alloys, and Ferroalloys
A 999/A 999M Specification for General Requirements for
Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe
E 426 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Examination
of Seamless and Welded Tubular Products, Austenitic
Stainless Steel and Similar Alloys
2.2 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code:3
Section III, Nuclear Vessels
Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels
Section IX, Welding Qualifications
2.3 AWS Specifications:4
A 5.4 Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-
Nickel Steel Covered Welding Electrodes
A 5.9 Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-
Nickel Steel Welding Rods and Bare Electrodes
A 5.11 Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Covered Welding Electrodes
A 5.14 Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Bare Welding Rods and
A 5.22 Flux Cored Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and
Chromium-Nickel Steel Electrodes
A 5.30 Consumable Weld Inserts for Gas Tungsten Arc
1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,
Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
A01.10 on Stainless and Alloy Steel Tubular Products.
Current edition approved September 1, 2005. Published September 2005.
Originally approved in 1994. Last previous edition approved in 2004 as A 928/
A 928M – 04.
2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.
3 Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), ASME
International Headquarters, Three Park Ave., New York, NY 10016-5990.
4 Available from The American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW LeJeune Rd.,
Miami, FL 33126.

3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions:
3.1.1 The definitions in Specification A 999/A 999M and
Terminology A 941 are applicable to this specification.
4. Ordering Information
4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to specify
all requirements that are necessary for product under this
specification. Such requirements to be considered include, but
are not limited to, the following:
4.1.1 Quantity (feet, metres, or number of lengths),
4.1.2 Name of material (electric-fusion-welded pipe),
4.1.3 Grade (see Table 1),
4.1.4 Class (see 1.3),
4.1.5 Size (outside diameter and nominal wall thickness),
4.1.6 Length (specific or random),
4.1.7 End finish (section on ends of Specification A 999/
A 999M),
4.1.8 Authorization for repair of plate defects by welding
and subsequent heat treatment without prior approval, if such is
intended (see 13.3),
4.1.9 Specification designation,
4.1.10 Special requirements,
4.1.11 Statement invoking requirements of 13.4, if such is
4.1.12 Circumferential weld permissibility (see Section 17),
4.1.13 Supplementary Requirements (S1 through S4),
4.1.14 Applicable ASME Code, if known,
4.1.15 For ASME Code Section III applications, the service
classification intended, and
4.1.16 Certification requirements (see section on certification
of Specification A 999/A 999M).
5. General Requirements
5.1 Material furnished to this specification shall conform to
the applicable requirements of the current edition of Specification
A 999/A 999M unless otherwise provided herein.
6. Materials and Manufacture
6.1 Materials—The steel plate material shall conform to the
requirements of one of the grades of Specification A 240/
A 240M, listed in Table 1.
6.2 Welding:
6.2.1 The joints shall be full penetration double-welded or
single-welded butt joints using fusion welding processes as
defined under Definitions, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section IX. This specification makes no provision for
any difference in weld quality requirements, regardless of the
weld joint type used (single or double) in making the weld.
Where backing rings or strips are used, the ring or strip
material shall be of the same P-Number (Table QW-422 of
Section IX) as the plate being joined. Backing rings or strips
shall be removed completely after welding, prior to any
required radiography, and the exposed weld surface shall be
examined visually for conformance to the requirements of
6.2.3. Welds made by procedures using backing strips or rings
that remain in place are prohibited. Welding procedures and
welding operators shall be qualified in accordance with the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX.
6.2.2 Except as provided in and, welds shall
be made in their entirety by processes involving the deposition
of filler metal. For Class 4 pipe using multiple passes, it is permitted
to make the root-pass without the addition of filler metal. For Class 4 pipe, it is permitted that the weld surface
exposed inside the pipe be the result from a single pass made
from the inside of the pipe without the addition of filler metal. All single-welded pipe shall be radiographed completely.
6.2.3 The weld surface on either side of the weld may be
flush with the base plate or may have a reasonably uniform
crown, not to exceed 1⁄8 in. [3 mm]. It is permitted to remove
any weld reinforcement, at the option of the manufacturer or by
agreement between the manufacturer and purchaser. The contour
of the reinforcement shall be reasonably smooth and free
of irregularities. The deposited metal shall be fused uniformly
into the plate surface. No concavity of contour is permitted
unless the resulting thickness of weld metal is equal to or
greater than the minimum thickness of the adjacent base metal.
6.2.4 Weld defects shall be repaired by removal to sound
metal and rewelding. Subsequent heat treatment and examination
(that is, visual, radiographic, and dye penetrant) shall be as
required on the original welds.
6.3 Heat Treatment:

6.3.1 Unless otherwise stated in the order, heat treatment
shall be performed after welding and in accordance with the
requirements of Table 2.
6.3.2 If the purchaser desires pipe without heat treatment
subsequent to welding, the purchase order shall specify the
following condition: No final heat treatment of pipe fabricated of plate
that has been heat treated as required by Table 2 for the
particular grade. Each pipe supplied under this requirement
shall be stenciled with the suffix “HT-O.”
7. Chemical Composition
7.1 The chemical composition of the plate shall conform to
the requirements of the applicable specification and grade
listed in Table 1.
7.2 Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order, the
chemical composition of the welding material shall conform to
the requirements of the applicable AWS specification for the
corresponding grade given in Table 1 or shall conform to the
chemical composition specified for the plate, or shall, subject
to purchaser approval, be a filler metal more highly alloyed
than the base metal when needed for corrosion resistance or
other properties. Use of a filler metal other than that listed in
Table 1 or conforming to the chemical composition specified
for the plate shall be reported and the filler metal identified on
the certificate of tests. When nitrogen is a specified element for
the ordered grade, the method of analysis shall be a matter of
agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
8. Heat Analysis
8.1 The chemical analysis of the steel shall be determined
by the plate manufacturer and shall conform to the requirements
for the particular grade as prescribed in Specification
A 240/A 240M.
9. Product Analysis
9.1 At the request of the purchaser’s inspector, an analysis
of one length of flat-rolled stock from each heat, or from base
metal and weld deposit from two pipes from each lot, shall be
made by the manufacturer. A lot of pipe shall consist of the
following number of lengths of the same size and wall
thickness from any one heat of steel:

NPS Designator                                                         Lengths of Pipe in Lot
Under 2                                                                      400 or fraction thereof
2 to 5, incl                                                                  200 or fraction thereof
6 and over                                                                  100 or fraction thereof
9.2 The results of these analyses shall be reported to the
purchaser or the purchaser’s representative and shall conform
to the requirements specified in Section 7, subject to the
product analysis tolerances of Table 1 in Specification A 480/
A 480M.
9.3 If the analysis of one of the tests specified in 8.1 or 9.1
does not conform to the requirements specified in Section 7, it
is permitted to obtain an analysis of the base metal and weld
deposit of each pipe from the same heat or lot, and all pipe
conforming to the requirements shall be accepted.
10. Tensile Requirements
10.1 The plate used in making the pipe shall conform to the
requirements as to tensile properties of the applicable specifications
listed in Table 1. Tension tests made by the plate
manufacturer shall qualify the plate material.
10.2 The transverse tension test taken across the welded
joint specimen shall have a tensile strength not less than the
specified minimum tensile strength of the plate.
11. Permissible Variations of Dimensions for Thin-Wall
11.1 For thin-wall pipe, defined as pipe having a wall
thickness of 3 % or less of the specified outside diameter, the
diameter tolerance, as listed in Specification A 999/A 999M,
shall apply only to the mean of the extreme (maximum and
minimum) outside diameter readings in any one cross section.
11.2 For thin-wall pipe, the difference in extreme outside
readings (called the ovality) in any one section shall not exceed
twice the permissible variations in outside diameter for the
specified diameter as listed in Specification A 999/A 999M.
12. Transverse Guided-Bend Weld Tests
12.1 Two bend test specimens shall be taken transversely
from the pipe. Except as provided in 12.2, one shall be subject
to a face guided-bend test and the second to a root guided-bend
test. One specimen shall be bent with the inside surface of the
pipe against the plunger, and the other with the outside surface
against the plunger.

12.2 For specified wall thicknesses over 3⁄8 in. [9.5 mm] but
less than 3⁄4 in. [19 mm], side-bend tests may be made instead
of the face and root-bend tests. For specified wall thicknesses
3⁄4 in. [19 mm] and over, both specimens shall be subjected to
the side-bend tests. Side-bend specimens shall be bent so that
one of the side surfaces becomes the convex surface of the
bend specimen.
12.3 The bend test shall be acceptable if no cracks or other
defects exceeding 1⁄8 in. [3 mm] in any direction are present in
the weld metal or between the weld and the pipe metal after
bending. Cracks that originate along edges of the specimen
during testing, and that are less than 1⁄4 in. [6.5 mm] measured
in any direction, shall not be considered.
13. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
13.1 The finished pipe shall have a workmanlike finish.
13.2 Repair of Plate Defects by Machining or Grinding—
Pipe showing slivers may be machined or ground inside or
outside to a depth that shall ensure the removal of all included
scale and slivers, providing the wall thickness is not reduced
below the specified minimum wall thickness. Machining or
grinding shall follow inspection of the pipe as rolled, and it
shall be followed by supplementary visual inspection.
13.3 Repair of Plate Defects by Welding— Defects that
violate minimum wall thickness may be repaired by welding,
but only with the approval of the purchaser. Areas shall be
prepared suitably for welding with tightly closed defects
removed by grinding. Open, clean defects, such as pits or
impressions, may require no preparation. All welders, welding
operators, and weld procedures shall be qualified to the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX. Unless the
purchaser specifies otherwise, pipe required to be heat treated
under the provisions of 6.3 shall be heat treated or reheat
treated following repair welding. Repaired lengths, where
repair depth is greater than 1⁄4 of the thickness, shall be pressure
tested or repressure tested after repair and heat treatment (if
any). Repair welds shall also be examined by suitable nondestructive
examination techniques, including any techniques
required specifically of the primary weld.
13.4 The pipe shall be free of scale and contaminating iron
particles. Pickling, blasting, or surface finishing is not mandatory
when pipe is bright annealed. The purchaser is permitted
to require in the purchase order that a passivating treatment be
14. Test Specimens and Methods of Testing
14.1 Transverse tension and bend test specimens shall be
taken from the end of the finished pipe; the transverse tension
and bend test specimens shall be flattened cold before final
machining to size.
14.2 As an alternative to the requirements of 14.1, the
manufacturer is permitted to take the test specimens from a test
plate of the same material as the pipe, which is attached to the
end of the cylinder and welded as a prolongation of the pipe
longitudinal seam.
14.3 Tension test specimens shall be made in accordance
with Section IX, Part QW-150 of the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code and shall be one of the types shown in
QW-462.1 of that code.
14.3.1 Reduced-section specimens conforming to the requirements
given in QW-462.1(b) are permitted to be used for
tension tests on all thicknesses of pipe having outside diameters
greater than 3 in. [76 mm].
14.3.2 Turned specimens conforming to the requirements of
QW-462.1(d) are permitted to be used for tension tests. If turned specimens are used as given in
and 14.4, one complete set shall be made for each required
tension test. For thicknesses over 11⁄4 in. [32 mm], multiple
specimens shall be cut through the full thickness of the weld
with their centers parallel to the material surface and not over
1 in. [25 mm] apart. The centers of the specimens adjacent to
material surfaces shall not exceed 5⁄8 in. [16 mm] from the
14.4 The test specimens shall not be cut from the pipe or test
plate until after final heat treatment.
15. Mechanical Tests Required
15.1 Transverse Tension Test—One test shall be made to
represent each lot (see Note 2) of finished pipe.
NOTE 2—The term lot is defined in 9.1.
15.2 Transverse Guided-Bend Test—One test (two specimens)
shall be made to represent each lot (see Note 2) of
finished pipe.
15.3 Nondestructive Test—Each length of pipe shall be
subjected to a hydrostatic test as defined in 15.3.1 or, with the
approval of the purchaser, each length of pipe having a wall
thickness up through 0.165 in. (4.2 mm) shall be subjected to
a nondestructive electric test as defined in 15.3.2.
15.3.1 Hydrostatic Test—Each length of pipe shall be subjected
to a hydrostatic test in accordance with Specification
A 999/A 999M, unless specifically exempted under the provision
of Pressure shall be held for a sufficient time to
permit the inspector to examine the entire length of the welded
seam. With the agreement of the manufacturer, the purchaser
is permitted to complete the hydrostatic test requirement
with the system pressure test, which may be lower or higher
than the specification test pressure, but in no case shall the test
pressure be lower than the system design pressure. Each length
of pipe furnished without the completed manufacturer’s hydrostatic
test shall include with the mandatory marking the letters
15.3.2 Nondestructive Electric Test—Each length of pipe
shall be subjected to a nondestructive electric test in accordance
with Practice E 426. For pipe up through NPS 4, the eddy-current test
shall be applied to the total pipe area. For pipe larger than NPS
4, the eddy-current test is permitted, at the option of the
producer, to be applied to the weld area only rather than the
total pipe area.
16. Radiographic Examination
16.1 For Classes 1, 3, and 4 pipe, all welded joints shall be
examined completely by radiography.

16.2 For Class 5 pipe, the welded joints shall be spot
radiographed to the extent of not less than 12 in. [300 mm] of
radiograph per 50 ft [15 m] of weld.
16.3 For Classes 1, 3, and 4 pipe, radiographic examination
shall be in accordance with the requirements of the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, latest edition,
Paragraph UW-51.
16.4 For Class 5 pipe, radiographic examination shall be in
accordance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, latest edition,
Paragraph UW-52.
16.5 Radiographic examination is permitted to be performed
prior to heat treatment.
17. Lengths
17.1 Circumferentially welded joints of the same quality as
the longitudinal joints shall be permitted by agreement between
the manufacturer and the purchaser.
18. Product Marking
18.1 In addition to the marking prescribed in Specification
A 999/A 999M, the markings of each length of pipe shall
include the plate material designations as shown in Table 1, the
marking requirements of 6.3 and 15.3, and Class 1, 2, 3, or 4,
as appropriate (see 1.3).
19. Keywords
19.1 arc welded steel pipe; corrosive service; duplex
(austenitic-ferritic) stainless steel; fusion welded steel pipe;
steel pipe; welded steel pipe



One or more of the following supplementary requirements shall apply when specified in the
purchase order. The purchaser may specify a different frequency of test or analysis than is provided
in the supplementary requirement. Subject to agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer,
retest and retreatment provisions of these supplementary requirements may also be modified.

S1. Product Analysis
S1.1 Product analysis shall be made on each length of pipe.
Individual lengths failing to conform to the chemical requirements
shall be rejected.
S2. Tension and Bend Tests
S2.1 Tension tests (see Section 10) and bend tests (see
Section 12) shall be made on specimens to represent each
length of pipe. Failure of any test specimen to meet the
requirements shall be cause for the rejection of the pipe length
S3. Penetration Oil and Powder Examination
S3.1 All welded joints shall be subjected to examination by
a penetrant oil and powder method. The details of the method
and the disposition of flaws detected shall be a matter for
agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
S4. Ferrite Control in Weld Deposits
S4.1 The ferrite content of the deposited weld metal in any
length of pipe may be determined. The procedural details
pertaining to this subject (that is, welding, plate and weld
deposit chemistry, testing equipment and method, number and
location of test sites, and ferrite control limits) shall be a matter
for agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.