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SS pipe grades.

A249/ A249M A269 A270 A778 A335/ A335M A691
A790 A312 A409 A554 A358/ A358M A928/ A928M


CS pipe Grades

A 106 A53 API5L A671 A672

Heat Treatment :
UNS
Designation
Type Temperature oF [oC] Quench
S31200   1920-2010
[1950-1100]
Rapid Cooling in water
S31260   1870-2010
[1020-1100]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S31500   1800-1900
[980-1040]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S31803   1870-2070
[1020-1100]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S31003   1850-2050
[1010-1120]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32101   1870-2020 Quenched in water rapidly
Cooled by other means
S32202   1800-1975
[980-1080]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32205 2205 1870-2010
[1020-1100]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32304 2304 1700-1920
[925-1050]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32506   1870-2050
[1020-1120]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32520   1975-2050
[1080-1120]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32550 255 1900 [1040]Min Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32707   1975-2050
[1080-1120]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32750 2507 1880-2060
[1025-1125]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32760   2010-2085
[1100-1140]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32808   1920-2100
[1050-1150]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32900 329 1700-1750
[925-955]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32906   1870-2100
[1020-1150]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S32950   1820-1880
[990-1025]
Air Cool
S33207   1905-2085
[1040-1140]
Rapid Cooling in water or
by other means
S39274   1920-2060
[1025-1125]
Rapid Cooling in air or water
S39277   1975-2155
[1080-1180]
Rapid Cooling in air or water


A 790 Chemical Requirements:

UNS
DESIGNATION
TYPE C MIN P S SI NI CR MO N CU OTHER
S31200   0.03 2 0.045 0.03 1 5.5-6.5 24.0-26.0 1.20-2.00 0.14-0.20    
S31260   0.03 1 0.03 0.03 0.75 5.5-7.5 24.0-26.0 2.5-3.5 0.10-0.30 0.20-0.80W  
                        0.10-0.50
S31500   0.03 1.20-2.00 0.03 0.03 1.40-2.00 4.2-5.2 18.0-19.0 2.50-3.00 0.05-0.10    
S31803   0.03 2 0.03 0.02 1 4.5-6.5 21.0-23.0 2.5-3.5 0.08-0.20    
S32003   0.03 2 0.03 0.02 1 3.0-4.0 19.5-22.5 1.50-2.00 0.14-0.20    
S32101   0.04 4.0-6.0 0.04 0.03 1 1.35-1.70 21.0-22.0 0.10-0.80 0.20-0.25 0.10-0.80  
S32202   0.03 2 0.04 0.01 1 1.00-2.80 21.5-24.0 0.45 0.18-0.26    
S32202 2205 0.03 2 0.03 0.02 1 4.5-6.5 22.0-23.0 3.0-3.5 0.14-0.20    
S32304 2304 0.03 2.5 0.04 0.04 1 3.0-5.5 21.5-24.5 0.05-24.5 0.05-0.60    
S32506   0.03 1 0.04 0.015 0.9 5.5-7.2 24.0-26.0 3.0-3.5 0.08-0.20   W
                        0.05-0.30
S32520   0.03 1.5 0.035 0.02 0.8 5.5-8.0 24.0-26.0 3.0-5.0 0.20-0.35 0.5-3.00  
S32550 255 0.04 1.5 0.04 0.03 1 4.5-6.5 24.C-27.0 2.9-3.9 0.10-0.25 1.50-2.50  
S32707   0.03 1.5 0.035 0.01 0.5 5.5-9.5 26.0-29.0 4.0-5.0 0.30-0.50 1 Co.
S32750 2507 0.03 1.2 0.035 0.02 0.8 6.0-8.0 24.0-26.0 3.0-5.0 0.24-0.32 0.5  
S32760   0.05 1 0.03 0.01 1 6.0-8.0 24.0-26.0 3.0-4.0 0.20-0.30 0.50-1.00 W
                        0.50-1.00
                        40 min.
S32908   0.03 1.1 0.03 0.03 0.5 7.0-8.2 27.0-27.9 0.80-1.20 0.30-0.40   W
,                       2.10-2.50
S32900 329 0.08 1 0.04 0.03 0.75 2.5-5.0 23.0-28.0 1.00-2.00      
S32906   0.03 0.80-1.50 0.03 0.03 0.8 5.8-7.5 28.0-30.0 1.50-2.60 0.30-0.40 0.8  
S32950   0.03 2 0.035 0.01 0.6 3.5-5.2 26.0-29.0 1.00-2.50 0.15-0.35    
S33207   0.03 1.5 0.035 0.01 0.8 6.0-9.0 29.0-33.0 3.0-5.0 0.40-0.60 1  
S39274   0.03 1 0.03 0.02 0.8 6.0-8.0 24.0-26.0 2.5-3.5 0.24-0.32 0.20-0.80 W
                        1.50-2.50
S39277 0.025 0.8 0.025 0.002 0.8 6.5-8.0 24.0-26.0 3.0-4.0 0.23-0.33 1.20-2.00 W 0.8-1.2

Designation: A 790/A 790M – 07

Standard Specification for
Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel
Pipe

This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 790/A 790M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope*
1.1 This specification2 covers seamless and straight-seam
welded ferritic/austenitic steel pipe intended for general corrosive
service, with particular emphasis on resistance to stress
corrosion cracking. These steels are susceptible to embrittlement
if used for prolonged periods at elevated temperatures.
1.2 Optional supplementary requirements are provided for
pipe when a greater degree of testing is desired. These
supplementary requirements call for additional tests to be made
and, when desired, one or more of these may be specified in the
order.
1.3 Appendix X1 of this specification lists the dimensions
of welded and seamless stainless steel pipe as shown in ANSI
B36.19. Pipe having other dimensions may be furnished
provided such pipe complies with all other requirements of this
specification.
1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units
are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the
SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each
system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must
be used independently of the other. Combining values from the
two systems may result in nonconformance with the specification.
The inch-pound units shall apply unless the M designation
of this specification is specified in the order.
NOTE 1—The dimensionless designator NPS (nominal pipe size) has
been substituted in this standard for such traditional terms as nominal
diameter, size, and nominal size.

2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards: 3
A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing
of Steel Products

1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,
Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
A01.10 on Stainless and Alloy Steel Tubular Products.
Current edition approved Sept. 1, 2007. Published October 2007. Originally
approved in 1981. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as A 790/A 790M – 05b.
2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specification
SA–790 in Section II of that Code.
3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.

A 941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related
Alloys, and Ferroalloys
A 999/A 999M Specification for General Requirements for
Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe
E 213 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe
and Tubing
E 309 Practice for Eddy-Current Examination of Steel Tubular
Products Using Magnetic Saturation
E 381 Method of Macroetch Testing Steel Bars, Billets,
Blooms, and Forgings
E 426 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Examination
of Seamless and Welded Tubular Products, Austenitic
Stainless Steel and Similar Alloys
E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys in the
Unified Numbering System (UNS)
2.2 ANSI Standards:4
B1.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose
B36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
B36.19 Stainless Steel Pipe
2.3 SAE Standard:5
SAE J 1086
2.4 Other Standard:6
SNT-TC-1A Personal Qualification and Certification in
Nondestructive Testing
2.5 AWS Standard
A5.9 Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-
Nickel Steel Welding Rods and Electrodes
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions—For definitions of terms used in this specification
refer to Terminology A 941.
4. Ordering Information
4.1 Orders for material under this specification should
include the following, as required, to describe the desired
material adequately:
4.1.1 Quantity (feet, [metres], or number of lengths),

4 Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St.,
4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.
5 Available from Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 400 Commonwealth
Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, http://www.sae.org.
6 Available from American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), P.O. Box
28518, 1711 Arlingate Ln., Columbus, OH 43228-0518, http://www.asnt.org.

4.1.2 Name of material (ferritic/austenitic steel pipe),
4.1.3 Process (seamless or welded),
4.1.4 Grade (see Table 1),
4.1.5 Size (NPS designator or outside diameter and schedule
number of average wall thickness),
4.1.6 Length (specific or random) (see Section 11),
4.1.7 End finish (section on ends of Specification A 999/
A 999M),
4.1.8 Optional requirements (product analysis, Section 9;
hydrostatic test or nondestructive electric test, Section 14),
4.1.9 Test report required (section on certification of Specification
A 999/A 999M),
4.1.10 Specification designation, and
4.1.11 Special requirements and any supplementary requirements
selected.
5. General Requirements
5.1 Material furnished under this specification shall conform
to the applicable requirements of the current edition of
Specification A 999/A 999M unless otherwise provided herein.

6. Materials and Manufacture
6.1 Manufacture:

6.1.1 The pipe shall be made by the seamless or an
automatic welding process, with no addition of filler metal in
the welding operation.
6.1.2 At the manufacturer’s option, pipe may be either
hot-finished or cold-finished.
6.1.3 The pipe shall be pickled free of scale. When bright
annealing is used, pickling is not necessary.
6.2 Discard—A sufficient discard shall be made from each
ingot to secure freedom from injurious piping and undue
segregation.
6.3 All pipe shall be furnished in the heat-treated condition
as shown in Table 1. For seamless pipe, as an alternate to final
heat treatment in a continuous furnace or batch-type furnace,
immediately following hot forming while the temperature of
the pipes is not less than the specified minimum solution
treatment temperature, pipes shall be individually quenched in
water or rapidly cooled by other means, except for UNS
S32950, which shall be air cooled.
7. Chemical Composition
7.1 The steel shall conform to the chemical requirements as
prescribed in Table 2.

TABLE 2   Chemical RequirementsA
UNS Designa- tionB

TypeC          C                  Mn               P                    S                    Si                 Ni                Cr                      Mo               N                 Cu            Others

S31200                          0.030            2.00             0.045             0.030             1.00             5.5–6.5        24.0–26.0         1.20–2.00    0.14–0.20    . . .           . . .

S31260                          0.030            1.00             0.030             0.030             0.75             5.5–7.5        24.0–26.0         2.5–3.5        0.10–0.30

0.20–0.80 W
0.10–0.50

S31500                          0.030            1.20–2.00    0.030             0.030             1.40–2.00    4.2–5.2        18.0–19.0         2.50–3.00    0.05–0.10    . . .           . . . S31803                          0.030            2.00             0.030             0.020             1.00             4.5–6.5        21.0–23.0         2.5–3.5        0.08–0.20    . . .           . . . S32003                          0.030            2.00             0.030             0.020             1.00             3.0–4.0        19.5-22.5          1.50–2.00    0.14–0.20    . . .           . . .

S32101                          0.040            4.0–6.0        0.040             0.030             1.00             1.35–1.70    21.0–22.0         0.10–0.80    0.20–0.25

0.10–0.80 . . .

S32205          2205       0.030            2.00             0.030             0.020             1.00             4.5–6.5        22.0–23.0         3.0–3.5        0.14–0.20    . . .           . . .

S32304          2304       0.030            2.50             0.040             0.040             1.00             3.0–5.5        21.5–24.5         0.05–0.60    0.05–0.20

0.05–0.60 . . .

S32506                          0.030            1.00             0.040             0.015             0.90             5.5–7.2        24.0–26.0         3.0–3.5        0.08–0.20    . . .           W
0.05–0.30

S32520                          0.030            1.5               0.035             0.020             0.80             5.5–8.0        24.0–26.0         3.0–5.0        0.20–0.35
S32550           255        0.04              1.50             0.040             0.030             1.00             4.5–6.5        24.0–27.0         2.9–3.9        0.10–0.25

0.5–3.00  . . .
1.50–2.50 . . .

S32707                          0.030            1.50             0.035             0.010             0.50             5.5–9.5        26.0–29.0         4.0–5.0        0.30–0.50    1.0           Co
0.5–2.0
S32750          2507       0.030            1.20             0.035             0.020             0.80             6.0–8.0        24.0–26.0         3.0–5.0        0.24–0.32    0.5           . . .

S32760                          0.05              1.00             0.030             0.010             1.00             6.0–8.0        24.0–26.0         3.0–4.0        0.20–0.30

0.50–1.00 W
0.50–1.00
40 minD

S32808                          0.030            1.10             0.030             0.030             0.50             7.0–8.2        27.0–27.9         0.80–1.20    0.30–0.40    . . .           W
2.10–2.50
S32900           329        0.08              1.00             0.040             0.030             0.75             2.5–5.0        23.0–28.0         1.00–2.00    . . .               . . .           . . . S32906                          0.030            0.80–1.50    0.030             0.030             0.80             5.8–7.5        28.0–30.0         1.50–2.60    0.30–0.40    0.80         . . . S32950                          0.030            2.00             0.035             0.010             0.60             3.5–5.2        26.0–29.0         1.00–2.50    0.15–0.35    . . .           . . .

S39274                          0.030            1.00             0.030             0.020             0.80             6.0–8.0        24.0–26.0         2.5–3.5        0.24–0.32

S39277                          0.025            0.80             0.025             0.002             0.80             6.5–8.0        24.0–26.0         3.0–4.0        0.23–0.33

0.20–0.80 W
1.50–2.50
1.20–2.00 W 0.8–1.2

AMaximum, unless a range or minimum is indicated. Where ellipses (...) appear in this table, there is no minimum and analysis for the element need not be determined or reported.
B  New designation established in accordance with Practice E 527 and SAE J 1086.
CCommon name, not a trademark, widely used, not associated with any one producer. 329 is na AISI number.
D  % Cr + 3.3 3 % Mo + 16 3 % N.

8. Heat Analysis
8.1 An analysis of each heat of steel shall be made by the
steel manufacturer to determine the percentages of the elements
specified.
9. Product Analysis
9.1 At the request of the purchaser’s inspector, an analysis
of one billet or one length of flat-rolled stock from each heat,
or two pipes from each lot, shall be made by the manufacturer.
A lot of pipe shall consist of the following number of lengths
of the same size and wall thickness from any one heat of steel:
NPS Designator Lengths of Pipe in Lot
Under 2 400 or fraction thereof
2 to 5, incl 200 or fraction thereof
6 and over 100 or fraction thereof
9.2 The results of these analyses shall be reported to the
purchaser or the purchaser’s representative and shall conform
to the requirements specified in Section 7.
9.3 If the analysis of one of the tests specified in 8.1 or 9.1
does not conform to the requirements specified in Section 7, an
analysis of each billet or pipe from the same heat or lot may be
made, and all billets or pipe conforming to the requirements
shall be accepted.
10. Tensile and Hardness Properties
10.1 The material shall conform to the tensile and hardness
properties prescribed in Table 3.
11. Lengths
11.1 Pipe lengths shall be in accordance with the following
regular practice:
11.1.1 Unless otherwise agreed upon, all sizes from NPS 1⁄8
to and including NPS 8 are available in a length up to 24 ft (see
Note 2) with the permissible range of 15 to 24 ft (see Note 2).
Short lengths are acceptable and the number and minimum
length shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer and the
purchaser.

NOTE 2—This value applies when the inch-pound designation of this
specification is the basis of purchase. When the M designation of this
specification is the basis of purchase, the corresponding metric value(s)
shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser.
11.1.2 If definite cut lengths are desired, the lengths required
shall be specified in the order. No pipe shall be less than
the specified length and no more than 1⁄4 in. [6 mm] over it.
11.1.3 No jointers are permitted unless otherwise specified.
12. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
12.1 The finished pipes shall be reasonably straight and
shall have a workmanlike finish. Imperfections may be removed
by grinding, provided the wall thicknesses are not
decreased to less than that permitted, in the Permissible
Variations in Wall Thickness Section of Specification A 999/
A 999M.
13. Mechanical Tests Required
13.1 Transverse or Longitudinal Tension Test—One tension
test shall be made on a specimen for lots of not more than 100
pipes. Tension tests shall be made on specimens from 2 pipes
for lots of more than 100 pipes.
13.2 Mechanical Testing Lot Definition —The term lot for
mechanical tests applies to all pipe of the same nominal size
and wall thickness (or schedule) that is produced from the same
heat of steel and subjected to the same finishing treatment as
defined as follows:
13.2.1 Where the heat treated condition is obtained, consistent
with the requirements of 6.3, in a continuous heat
treatment furnace or by directly obtaining the heat treated
condition by quenching after hot forming, the lot shall include
all pipe of the same size and heat, heat treated in the same
furnace at the same temperature, time at heat, and furnace
speed or all pipe of the same size and heat, hot formed and
quenched in the same production run.
13.2.2 Where final heat treatment is obtained, consistent
with the requirements of 6.3, in a batch-type heat-treatment
furnace equipped with recording pyrometers and automatically
controlled within a 50 °F [30 °C] or smaller range, the lot shall
be the larger of (a) each 200 ft [60 m] or fraction thereof or (b)
that pipe heat treated in the same batch furnace charge.
13.2.3 Where the final heat treatment is obtained, consistent
with the requirements of 6.3, in a batch-type heat-treatment
furnace not equipped with recording pyrometers and automatically
controlled within a 50 °F [30 °C] or smaller range, the
term lot for mechanical tests applies to the pipe heat treated in
the same batch furnace charge, provided that such pipe is of the

same nominal size and wall thickness (or schedule) and is
produced from the same heat of steel.
13.3 Flattening Test—For pipe heat treated in a batch-type
furnace, flattening tests shall be made on 5 % of the pipe from
each heat-treated lot. For pipe heat treated by the continuous
process, or by direct quenching after hot forming, this test shall
be made on a sufficient number of pipes to constitute 5 % of the
lot, but in no case less than two lengths of pipe.
13.3.1 For welded pipe with a diameter equal to or exceeding
NPS 10, a transverse guided face bend test of the weld may
be conducted instead of a flattening test in accordance with the
method outlined in the steel tubular product supplement of Test
Methods and Definitions A 370. The ductility of the weld shall
be considered acceptable when there is no evidence of cracks
in the weld or between the weld and the base metal after
bending. Test specimens from 5 % of the lot shall be taken
from the pipes or test plates of the same material as the pipe,
the test plates being attached to the end of the cylinder and
welded as a prolongation of the pipe longitudinal seam.
13.4 Hardness Test—Brinell or Rockwell hardness tests
shall be made on specimens from two pipes from each lot (see
13.2).
14. Hydrostatic or Nondestructive Electric Test
14.1 Each pipe shall be subjected to the nondestructive
electric test or the hydrostatic test. The type of test to be used
shall be at the option of the manufacturer, unless otherwise
specified in the purchase order.
14.2 The hydrostatic test shall be in accordance with Specification
A 999/A 999M, except that the value for S to be used
in the calculation of the hydrostatic test pressure shall be equal
to 50 % of the specified minimum yield strength of the pipe.
14.3 Nondestructive Electric Test:
Nondestructive electric tests shall be in accordance with
Practices E 213 or E 309.
14.3.1 As an alternative to the hydrostatic test, and when
specified by the purchaser, each pipe shall be examined with a
nondestructive test in accordance with Practices E 213 or
E 309. Unless specifically called out by the purchaser, the
selection of the nondestructive electric test will be at the option
of the manufacturer. The range of pipe sizes that may be
examined by each method shall be subject to the limitations in
the scope of the respective practices.
14.3.1.1 The following information is for the benefit of the
user of this specification:
14.3.1.2 The reference standards defined in 14.3.1.3-
14.3.1.5 are convenient standards for calibration of nondestructive
testing equipment. The dimensions of these standards
should not be construed as the minimum size imperfection
detectable by such equipment.
14.3.1.3 The ultrasonic testing (UT) can be performed to
detect both longitudinally and circumferentially oriented defects.
It should be recognized that different techniques should
be employed to detect differently oriented imperfections. The
examination may not detect short, deep, defects.
14.3.1.4 The eddy-current testing (ET) referenced in this
specification (see Practice E 426) has the capability of detecting
significant discontinuities, especially the short abrupt type.
14.3.1.5 A purchaser interested in ascertaining the nature
(type, size, location, and orientation) of discontinuities that can
be detected in the specific application of these examinations
should discuss this with the manufacturer of the tubular
product.
14.4 Time of Examination—Nondestructive testing for
specification acceptance shall be performed after all mechanical
processing, heat treatments, and straightening operations.
This requirement does not preclude additional testing at earlier
stages in the processing.
14.5 Surface Condition:
14.5.1 All surfaces shall be free of scale, dirt, grease, paint,
or other foreign material that could interfere with interpretation
of test results. The methods used for cleaning and preparing the
surfaces for examination shall not be detrimental to the base
metal or the surface finish.
14.5.2 Excessive surface roughness or deep scratches can
produce signals that interfere with the test.
14.6 Extent of Examination:
14.6.1 The relative motion of the pipe and the transducer(s),
coil(s), or sensor(s) shall be such that the entire pipe surface is
scanned, except as in 14.6.2.
14.6.2 The existence of end effects is recognized and the
extent of such effects shall be determined by the manufacturer
and, if requested, shall be reported to the purchaser. Other
nondestructive tests may be applied to the end areas, subject to
agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
14.7 Operator Qualifications—The test unit operator shall
be certified in accordance with SNT-TC-1A, or an equivalent
recognized and documented standard.
14.8 Test Conditions:
14.8.1 For eddy-current testing, the excitation coil frequency
shall be chosen to ensure adequate penetration yet
provide good signal-to-noise ratio.
14.8.2 The maximum eddy-current coil frequency used
shall be as follows:
On specified walls up to 0.050 in.—100 KHz max
On specified walls up to 0.150 in.—50 KHz max
On specified walls over 0.150 in.—10 KHz max
14.8.3 Ultrasonic—For examination by the ultrasonic
method, the minimum nominal transducer frequency shall be
2.00 MHz and the maximum nominal transducer size shall be
1.5 in. If the equipment contains a reject notice filter setting,
this shall remain off during calibration and testing unless
linearity can be demonstrated at that setting.
14.9 Reference Standards—Reference standards of convenient
length shall be prepared from a length of pipe of the same
grade, size (NPS, or outside diameter and schedule or wall
thickness), surface finish and heat treatment condition as the
pipe to be examined.
14.9.1 For Ultrasonic Testing, the reference ID and OD
notches shall be any one of the three common notch shapes
shown in Practice E 213, at the option of the manufacturer. The
depth of each notch shall not exceed 12 1⁄2 % of the specified
nominal wall thickness of the pipe or 0.004 in., whichever is
greater. The width of the notch shall not exceed twice the
depth. Notches shall be placed on both the OD and ID surfaces.

14.9.2 For Eddy-Current Testing, the reference standard
shall contain, at the option of the manufacturer, any one of the
following discontinuities:
14.9.2.1 Drilled Hole— The reference standard shall contain
three or more holes equally spaced circumferentially
around the pipe and longitudinally separated by a sufficient
distance to allow distinct identification of the signal from each
hole. The holes shall be drilled radially and completely through
the pipe wall, with care being taken to avoid distortion of the
pipe while drilling. One hole shall be drilled in the weld, if
visible. Alternately, the producer of welded pipe may choose to
drill one hole in the weld and run the calibration standard
through the test coils three times with the weld turned at 120°
on each pass. The hole diameter shall vary with NPS as
follows:

14.9.2.2 Transverse Tangential Notch—Using a round tool
or file with a 1⁄4-in. [6.4-mm] diameter, a notch shall be filed or
milled tangential to the surface and transverse to the longitudinal
axis of the pipe. Said notch shall have a depth not
exceeding 12 1⁄2 % of the specified nominal wall thickness of
the pipe or 0.004 in. [0.102 mm], whichever is greater.
14.9.2.3 Longitudinal Notch—A notch 0.031 in. or less in
width shall be machined in a radial plane parallel to the tube
axis on the outside surface of the pipe to have a depth not
exceeding 12 1⁄2 % of the specified wall thickness of the pipe
or 0.004 in., whichever is greater. The length of the notch shall
be compatible with the testing method.
More or smaller reference discontinuities, or both, may be
used by agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
14.10 Standardization Procedure:
14.10.1 The test apparatus shall be standardized at the
beginning and end of each series of pipes of the same size
(NPS or diameter and schedule or wall thickness, grade, and
heat treatment condition), and at intervals not exceeding 4 h.
More frequent standardization may be performed at the manufacturer’s
option or may be required upon agreement between
the purchaser and the manufacturer.
14.10.2 The test apparatus shall also be standardized after
any change in test system settings, change of operator, equipment
repair, or interruption due to power loss, process shutdown,
or when a problem is suspected.
14.10.3 The reference standard shall be passed through the
test apparatus at the same speed and test system settings as the
pipe to be tested.
14.10.4 The signal-to-noise ratio for the reference standard
shall be 2 1⁄2 to 1 or greater. Extraneous signals caused by
identifiable causes such as dings, scratches, dents, straightener
marks, and so forth shall not be considered noise. The rejection
amplitude shall be adjusted to be at least 50 % of full scale of
the readout display.
14.10.5 If upon any standardization, the rejection amplitude
has decreased by 29 % (3 dB) of peak height from the last
standardization, the pipe since the last calibration shall be
rejected. The test system settings may be changed or the
transducer(s), coil(s), or sensor(s) adjusted and the unit restandardized.
But all pipe tested since the last acceptable standardization
must be retested for acceptance.
14.11 Evaluation of Imperfections:
14.11.1 Pipes producing a signal equal to or greater than the
lowest signal produced by the reference standard(s) shall be
identified and separated from the acceptable pipes. The area
producing the signal may be reexamined.
14.11.2 Such pipes shall be rejected if the test signal was
produced by imperfections that cannot be identified or was
produced by cracks or crack-like imperfections. These pipes
may be repaired per Sections 12 and 13. To be accepted, a
repaired pipe must pass the same non-destructive test by which
it was rejected, and it must meet the minimum wall thickness
requirements of this specification.
14.11.3 If the test signals were produced by visual imperfections
such as: (1) scratches, (2) surface roughness, (3) dings,
(4) straightener marks, (5) cutting chips, (6) steel die stamps,
(7) stop marks, or (8) pipe reducer ripple. The pipe may be
accepted based on visual examination, provided the imperfection
is less than 0.004 in. [0.1 mm] or 12 1⁄2 % of the specified
wall thickness (whichever is greater).
14.11.4 Rejected pipe may be reconditioned and retested
providing the wall thickness is not decreased to less than that
required by this or the product specification. The outside
diameter at the point of grinding may be reduced by the amount
so removed. To be accepted, retested pipe shall meet the test
requirement.
14.11.5 If the imperfection is explored to the extent that it
can be identified as non-rejectable, the pipe may be accepted
without further test providing the imperfection does not encroach
on the minimum wall thickness.
15. Repair by Welding
15.1 For welded pipe of size NPS 6 or larger with a
specified wall thickness of 0.188 in. [4.8 mm] or more, weld
repairs made with the addition of compatible filler metal may
be made to the weld seam with the same procedures specified
for plate defects in the section on Repair by Welding of
Specification A 999/A 999M.
15.2 Weld repairs of the weld seam shall not exceed 20 % of
the seam length.
15.3 Except as allowed by 15.3.1, weld repairs shall be
made only with the gas tungsten-arc welding process using the
same classification of bare filter rod qualified to the most
current AWS Specification A5.9 as the grade of pipe being
repaired as given in Table 4.

TABLE 4 Pipe and Filler Metal Specification
Pipe                                                    Filler Metal

UNS Designation

AWS A5.9 Class

UNS Designation

S31803
S32205
S31200

ER2209
ER2209
ER2553

S39209
S39209
S39553

15.3.1 Subject to approval by the purchaser, it shall be
permissible for weld repairs to be made with the gas tungstenarc
welding process using a filler metal more highly alloyed
than the base metal, if needed for corrosion resistance or other
properties.
15.4 Pipes that have had weld seam repairs with filler metal
shall be identified with the symbol “WR” and shall be so stated
and identified on the certificate of tests. If filler metal other
than that listed in Table 4 is used, the filler metal shall be
identified on the certificate of tests.
15.5 Weld repairs shall be completed prior to any heat
treatment.
16. Product Marking
16.1 In addition to the marking prescribed in Specification
A 999/A 999M, the marking shall include the manufacturer’s
private identifying mark and whether the pipe is seamless or
welded. If specified in the purchase order, the marking for pipe
larger than NPS 4 shall include the weight.
17. Keywords
17.1 duplex stainless steel; ferritic/austenitic stainless steel;
seamless steel pipe; stainless steel pipe; steel pipe; welded steel
pipe

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTSFOR PIPE REQUIRING SPECIAL CONSIDERATION

One or more of the following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified in the
purchase order. The purchaser may specify a different frequency of test or analysis than is provided
in the supplementary requirement. Subject to agreement between the purchaser and manufacturer,
retest and retreatment provisions of these supplementary requirements may also be modified.

S1. Product Analysis
S1.1 For all pipe over NPS 5 there shall be one product
analysis made of a representative sample from one piece for
each ten lengths or fraction thereof from each heat of steel.
S1.2 For pipe smaller than NPS 5 there shall be one product
analysis made from ten lengths per heat of steel or from 10 %
of the number of lengths per heat of steel, whichever number
is smaller.
S1.3 Individual lengths failing to conform to the chemical
requirements specified in Section 7 shall be rejected.
S2. Transverse Tension Tests
S2.1 There shall be one transverse tension test made from
one end of 10 % of the lengths furnished per heat of steel. This
applies only to pipe over NPS 8.
S2.2 If a specimen from any length fails to conform to the
tensile properties specified that length shall be rejected.
S3. Flattening Test
S3.1 The flattening test of Specification A 999/A 999M
shall be made on a specimen from one end or both ends of each
pipe. Crops ends may be used. If this supplementary requirement
is specified, the number of tests per pipe shall also be
specified. If a specimen from any length fails because of lack
of ductility prior to satisfactory completion of the first step of
the flattening test requirement, that pipe shall be rejected
subject to retreatment in accordance with Specification A 999/
A 999M and satisfactory retest. If a specimen from any length
of pipe fails because of a lack of soundness that length shall be
rejected, unless subsequent retesting indicates that the remaining
length is sound.
S4. Etching Tests
S4.1 The steel shall be homogeneous as shown by etching
tests conducted in accordance with the appropriate portions of
Method E 381. Etching tests shall be made on a cross section
from one end or both ends of each pipe and shall show sound
and reasonably uniform material free of injurious laminations,
cracks, and similar objectionable defects. If this supplementary
requirement is specified, the number of tests per pipe required
shall also be specified. If a specimen from any length shows
objectionable defects, the length shall be rejected, subject to
removal of the defective end and subsequent retests indicating
the remainder of the length to be sound and reasonably uniform
material.

X1. Table X1.1 IS BASED ON TABLE 1 OF THE AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD FOR STAINLESS STEEL PIPE (ANSI
B36.19-1965)

TABLE X1.1 Dimensions of Welded and Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe
NOTE   1—The decimal thickness listed for the respective pipe sizes represents their nominal or average wall dimensions.
NPS
Designator
Outside Diameter                                                                                      Nominal Wall Thickness

 

in.                    mm
Schedule 5SA                                    Schedule 10SA                                     Schedule 40S                         Schedule 80S

in.                  mm                  in.                  mm                  in.                  mm                  in.                   mm

1⁄8

0.405

10.29

. . .

. . .

0.049B

1.24

0.068

1.73

0.095

2.41

1⁄4

0.540

13.72

. . .

. . .

0.065B

1.65

0.088

2.24

0.119

3.02

3⁄8

0.675

17.15

. . .

. . .

0.065B

1.65

0.091

2.31

0.126

3.20

1⁄2

0.840

21.34

0.065B

1.65

0.083B

2.11

0.109

2.77

0.147

3.73

3⁄4

1.050

26.67

0.065B

1.65

0.083B

2.11

0.113

2.87

0.154

3.91

1.0

1.315

33.40

0.065B

1.65

0.109B

2.77

0.133

3.38

0.179

4.55

11⁄4

1.660

42.16

0.065B

1.65

0.109B

2.77

0.140

3.56

0.191

4.85

11⁄2

1.900

48.26

0.065B

1.65

0.109B

2.77

0.145

3.68

0.200

5.08

2

2.375

60.33

0.065B

1.65

0.109B

2.77

0.154

3.91

0.218

5.54

21⁄2

2.875

73.03

0.083

2.11

0.120B

3.05

0.203

5.16

0.276

7.01

3

3.500

88.90

0.083

2.11

0.120B

3.05

0.216

5.49

0.300

7.62

31⁄2

4.000

101.60

0.083

2.11

0.120B

3.05

0.226

5.74

0.318

8.08

4

4.500

114.30

0.083

2.11

0.120B

3.05

0.237

6.02

0.337

8.56

5

5.563

141.30

0.109B

2.77

0.134B

3.40

0.258

6.55

0.375

9.52

6

6.625

168.28

0.109

2.77

0.134B

3.40

0.280

7.11

0.432

10.97

8

8.625

219.08

0.109B

2.77

0.148B

3.76

0.322

8.18

0.500

12.70

10

10.750

273.05

0.134B

3.40

0.165B

4.19

0.365

9.27

0.500B

12.70B

12

12.750

323.85

0.156B

3.96

0.180B

4.57

0.375B

9.52B

0.500B

12.70B

14

14.000

355.60

0.156B

3.96

0.188

4.78

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

16

16.000

406.40

0.165B

4.19

0.188

4.78

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

18

18.000

457.20

0.165B

4.19

0.188

4.78

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

20

20.000

508.00

0.188B

4.78

0.218B

5.54

...

...

...

...

22

22.000

558.80

0.188B

4.78

0.218B

5.54

...

...

...

...

24

24.000

609.60

0.218B

5.54

0.250

6.35

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

30

30.000

762.00

0.250

6.35

0.312

7.92

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

A  Schedules 5S and 10S wall thicknesses do not permit threading in accordance with the American National Standard for Pipe Threads (ANSI B1.20.1).
B  These do not conform to the American National Standard for Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe (ANSI B36.10-1979).