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Rolf Engg. Solutions Inc. supply and manufacture Stainless, Alloy and Carbon Steels.

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SS pipe grades.

A249/ A249M A269 A270 A778 A335/ A335M A691
A790 A312 A409 A554 A358/ A358M A928/ A928M


CS pipe Grades

A 106 A53 API5L A671 A672

We supply A 270 steel tubes in sizes up to and including 12 in. (304.8 mm) in outside diameter.
A 270 Chemical Properties:

Grade C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo

ASTM TP 304 

≦0.08

≦2.00

≦0.045

≦0.03

≦1.00

8.00~11.00

18.00~20.00

 

ASTM TP 304L 

≦0.035

≦2.00

≦0.045

≦0.03

≦1.00

8.00~12.00

18.00~20.00

 

ASTM TP 316

≦0.08

≦2.00

≦0.045

≦0.03

≦1.00

10.00~14.00

16.00~18.00

2.00~3.00

ASTM TP 316L

≦0.035

≦2.00

≦0.045

≦0.03

≦1.00

10.00~14.00

16.00~18.00

2.00~3.00

A 270 Tensile Requirements

Grade  Tensile Point (Mpa)  Yield Point (Mpa) Elongation in 2 in. min, (%)

ASTM TP 304 

515

205

35

ASTM TP 304L 

485

170

35

ASTM TP 316

515

205

35

ASTM TP 316L

485

170

35

 

Designation: A 691 – 98 (Reapproved 2002)

Standard Specification for
Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for
High-Pressure Service at High Temperatures

This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 691; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope
1.1 This specification2 covers carbon and alloy steel pipe,
electric-fusion-welded with filler metal added, fabricated from
pressure-vessel-quality plate of several analyses and strength
levels and suitable for high-pressure service at high temperatures.
Heat treatment may or may not be required to attain the
desired mechanical properties or to comply with applicable
code requirements. Supplementary requirements are provided
for use when additional testing or examination is desired.
1.2 The specification nominally covers pipe 16 in. (405
mm) in outside diameter and larger with wall thicknesses up to
3 in. (75 mm) inclusive. Pipe having other dimensions may be
furnished provided it complies with all other requirements of
this specification.
1.3 Several grades and classes of pipe are provided.
1.3.1 Grade designates the type of plate used as listed in
Table 1.
1.3.2 Class designates the type of heat treatment performed
in the manufacture of the pipe, whether the weld is radiographically
examined, and whether the pipe has been pressure
tested as listed in 1.3.3.
1.3.3 Class designations are as follows (Note 1):

Class               Heat Treatment on Pipe
Radiography, see Section
Pressure Test, see Section

10

none

none

none

11

none

9

none

12

none

9

8.3

13

none

none

8.3

20

stress relieved, see 5.3.1

none

none

21

stress relieved, see 5.3.1

9

none

22

stress relieved, see 5.3.1

9

8.3

23

stress relieved, see 5.3.1

none

8.3

30

normalized, see 5.3.2

none

none

31

normalized, see 5.3.2

9

none

32

normalized, see 5.3.2

9

8.3

33

normalized, see 5.3.2

none

8.3

40

normalized and tempered, see 5.3.3

none

none

41

normalized and tempered, see 5.3.3

9

none

1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,
Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
A01.09 on Carbon Steel Tubular Products.
Current edition approved June 10, 1998. Published October 1998. Originally
published as A 691 – 74. Last previous edition A 691 – 96.
2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related Specification
SA-691 in Section II of that Code.

Class               Heat Treatment on Pipe
Radiography, see Section
Pressure Test, see Section

42

normalized and tempered, see 5.3.3

9

8.3

43

normalized and tempered, see 5.3.3

none

8.3

50

quenched and tempered, see 5.3.4

none

none

51

quenched and tempered, see 5.3.4

9

none

52

quenched and tempered, see 5.3.4

9

8.3

53

quenched and tempered, see 5.3.4

none

8.3

NOTE 1—Selection of materials should be made with attention to
temperature of service. For such guidance, SpecificationA 20/A 20M may
be consulted.

1.4 Optional requirements of a supplementary nature are
provided, calling for additional tests and control of repair
welding, when desired.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded
as the standard.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
A 20/A 20M Specification for General Requirements for
Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels3
A 204/A 204M Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates,
Alloy Steel, Molybdenum3
A 299/A 299M Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates,
Carbon Steel, Manganese-Silicon3
A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing
of Steel Products4
A 387/A 387M Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates,
Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum3
A 435/A 435M Specification for Straight-Beam Ultrasonic
Examination of Steel Plates3
A 530/A 530M Specification for General Requirements for
Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe5
A 537/A 537M Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates,
Heat-Treated, Carbon-Manganese-Silicon Steel3
E 165 Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination6
E 709 Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination6

3 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.04.
4 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.03.
5 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01.
6 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03.

 

Pipe Grade

TABLE 1

Plate Materials

 

 

Type of Steel

 

ASTM Specification

Number

 

Grade

HB, maxA

CM-65

carbon-molybdenum steel

 

A 204/A 204M

A

201

CM-70

carbon-molybdenum steel

 

A 204/A

B

201

CM-75

carbon-molybdenum steel

 

A 204/A 204M

C

201

CMSH-70

carbon-manganese-silicon steel, normalized

 

A 537/A 537M

1

 

CMS-75

carbon-manganese-silicon steel

 

A 299/A 299M

. . .

. . .

CMSH-80

carbon-manganese-silicon steel, quenched and tempered

 

A 537/A 537M

2

 

1⁄2    CR

1⁄2  % chromium, 1⁄2  % molybdenum steel

 

A 387/A 387M

2

201

1CR

1 % chromium, 1⁄2  % molybdenum steel

 

A 387/A 387M

12

201

11⁄4    CR

11⁄4  % chromium, 1⁄2  % molybdenum steel

 

A 387/A 387M

11

201

21⁄4  CR

21⁄4  % chromium, 1 % molybdenum steel

 

A 387/A 387M

22

201

3CR

3 % chromium, 1 % molybdenum steel

 

A 387/A 387M

21

201

5CR

5 % chromium, 1⁄2  % molybdenum steel

 

A 387/A 387M

5

225

9CR

9 % chromium, 1 % molybdenum steel

 

A 387/A 387M

9

241

91

9 % chromium, 1 % molybdenum, vanadium, columbium

 

A 387/A 387M

91

241

2.2 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code:7
Section II, Material Specifications
Section III, Nuclear Power Plant Components
Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels
Section IX, Welding Qualifications
3. Terminology
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
3.1.1 A lot shall consist of 200 ft (61 m) or fraction thereof
of pipe from the same heat of steel.
3.1.1.1 The description of a lot may be further restricted by
use of Supplementary Requirement S12.
4. Ordering Information
4.1 The inquiry and order for material under this specification
should include the following information:
4.1.1 Quantity (feet, metres, or number of lengths),
4.1.2 Name of the material (steel pipe, electric-fusionwelded),
4.1.3 Specification number,
4.1.4 Grade and class designations (see 1.3),
4.1.5 Size (inside or outside diameter, nominal or minimum
wall thickness),
4.1.6 Length (specific or random),
4.1.7 End finish,
4.1.8 Purchase options, if any (see 5.2.3, 11.3, 11.4, 13.1),
and
4.1.9 Supplementary requirements, if any (refer to S1
through S12).
5. Materials and Manufacture
5.1 Materials—The steel plate material shall conform to the
requirements of the applicable plate specification for the pipe
grade ordered as listed in Table 1.
5.2 Welding:
5.2.1 The joints shall be double-welded full-penetration
welds made in accordance with procedures and by welders or
welding operators qualified in accordance with the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX.

7 Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), ASME
International Headquarters, Three Park Ave., New York, NY 10016-5990.

5.2.2 The welds shall be made either manually or automatically
by an electric process involving the deposition of filler
metal.
5.2.3 The welded joints shall have positive reinforcement at
the center of each side of the weld, but no more than 1⁄8 in. (3.2
mm). This reinforcement may be removed at the manufacturer’s
option or by agreement between the manufacturer and
purchaser. The contour of the reinforcement shall be smooth,
and the deposited metal shall be fused smoothly and uniformly
into the plate surface.
5.2.4 When radiographic examination in accordance with
9.1 is to be used, the weld reinforcement shall be governed by
the more restrictive provisions of UW-51 of Section VIII of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code instead of 5.2.3 of this
specification.
5.3 Heat Treatment—All classes other than 10, 11, 12, and
13 shall be heat treated in a furnace controlled to 6 25°F
(14°C) and equipped with a recording pyrometer so that
heating records are available. Heat treating after forming and
welding shall be to one of the following:
5.3.1 Classes 20, 21, 22, and 23 pipe shall be uniformly
heated within the post-weld heat-treatment temperature range
indicated in Table 2 for a minimum of 1 h/in. of thickness or for
1 h, whichever is greater.
5.3.2 Classes 30, 31, 32, and 33 pipe shall be uniformly
heated to a temperature in the austenitizing range and not
exceeding the maximum normalizing temperature indicated in
Table 2 and subsequently cooled in air at room temperature.
5.3.3 Classes 40, 41, 42, and 43 pipe shall be normalized in
accordance with 5.3.2. After normalizing, the pipe shall be
reheated to the tempering temperature indicated in Table 2 as a
minimum and held at temperature for a minimum of 1⁄2 h/in. of
thickness or for 1⁄2 h, whichever is greater, and air cooled.
5.3.4 Classes 50, 51, 52, and 53 pipe shall be uniformly
heated to a temperature in the austenitizing range, and not
exceeding the maximum quenching temperature indicated in
Table 2 and subsequently quenched in water or oil. After
quenching, the pipe shall be reheated to the tempering temperature
indicated in Table 2 as a minimum and held at that
temperature for a minimum of 1⁄2 h/in. of thickness or for 1⁄2 h,
whichever is greater, and air cooled.

5.4 Grade 91 shall be produced only to classes 4X and 5X.
In addition, post-weld heat treatment is required after weld
repair.
6. General Requirements
6.1 Material furnished to this specification shall conform to
the applicable requirements of the current edition of Specification
A 530/A 530M, unless otherwise provided herein.
7. Chemical Requirements
7.1 Product Analysis of Plate—The pipe manufacturer shall
make an analysis of each mill heat of plate material. The
product analysis so determined shall meet the requirements of
the plate specification to which the material was ordered.
7.2 Product Analysis of Weld—The pipe manufacturer shall
make an analysis of finished deposited weld metal from each
200 ft (61 m) or fraction thereof. Analysis shall conform to the
welding procedure for deposited weld metal.
7.3 Analysis may be taken from the mechanical test specimens.
The results of the analyses shall be reported to the
purchaser.
7.4 If the analysis of one of these tests specified in 7.1 or 7.2
does not conform to the requirements specified, analyses shall
be made on additional pipes of double the original number
from the same lot, each of which shall conform to the
requirements specified. Nonconforming pipe shall be rejected.
8. Mechanical Requirements
8.1 Tension Test:
8.1.1 Requirements—Transverse tensile properties of the
welded joint shall meet the minimum requirements for ultimate
tensile strength of the specified plate material.
8.1.2 Number of Tests—One test specimen shall be made to
represent each lot of finished pipe.
8.1.3 Test Specimen Location and Orientation—The test
specimen shall be made transverse to the weld at the end of the
finished pipe and may be flattened cold before final machining
to size.

8.1.4 Test Method—The test specimen shall be made in
accordance with QW-150 in Section IX of the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code. The test specimen shall be tested at
room temperature in accordance with Test Methods and Definitions
A 370.
8.2 Transverse-Guided-Weld-Bend Tests:
8.2.1 Requirements—The bend test shall be acceptable if no
cracks or other defects exceeding 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm) in any
direction be present in the weld metal or between the weld and
the pipe metal after bending. Cracks that originate along the
edges of the specimens during testing, and that are less than 1⁄4
in. (6.3 mm) in any direction shall not be considered.
8.2.2 Number of Tests—One test (two specimens) shall be
made to represent each lot of finished pipe.
8.2.3 Test Specimen Location and Orientation—Two bend
test specimens shall be taken transverse to the weld at the end
of the finished pipe. As an alternative, by agreement between
the purchaser and the manufacturer, the test specimens may be
taken from a test plate of the same material as the pipe, the test
plate being attached to the end of the cylinder and welded as a
prolongation of the pipe longitudinal weld seam.
8.2.4 Test Method—Bend tests shall be made in accordance
with Test Methods and Definitions A 370, A 2.5.1.7. For wall
thicknesses over 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) but less than 3⁄4 in. (19.0 mm)
side-bend tests may be made instead of the face and root-bend
tests. For wall thicknesses 3⁄4 in. and over both specimens shall
be subjected to the side-bend test.
8.3 Pressure Test—Classes X2 and X3, pipe shall be tested
in accordance with Section 20 of Specification A 530/A 530M.
9. Radiographic Examination
9.1 The full length of each weld of classes X1 and X2 shall
be radiographically examined in accordance with requirements
of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,
Paragraph UW-51.
9.2 Radiographic examination may be performed prior to
heat treatment.

10. Rework
10.1 Elimination of Surface Imperfections—Unacceptable
surface imperfections shall be removed by grinding or machining.
The remaining thickness of the section shall be no less than
the minimum specified in Section 11. The depression after
grinding or machining shall be blended uniformly into the
surrounding surface.
10.2 Repair of Base Metal Defects by Welding:
10.2.1 The manufacturer may repair, by welding, base metal
where defects have been removed, provided the depth of the
repair cavity as prepared for welding does not exceed 1⁄3 of the
nominal thickness, and the requirements of 10.2.2, 10.2.3,
10.2.4, 10.2.5, and 10.2.6 are met. Base metal defects in excess
of these may be repaired with prior approval of the customer.
10.2.2 The defect shall be removed by suitable mechanical
or thermal cutting or gouging methods and the cavity prepared
for repair welding.
10.2.3 The welding procedure and welders or welding
operators are to be qualified in accordance with Section IX of
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
10.2.4 The full length of the repaired pipe shall be heat
treated after repair in accordance with the requirements of the
pipe class specified.
10.2.5 Each repair weld of a defect where the cavity,
prepared for welding, has a depth exceeding the lesser of 3⁄8 in.
(9.5 mm) or 10 % of the nominal thickness shall be examined
by radiography in accordance with the methods and the
acceptance standards of Section 9.
10.2.6 The repair surface shall be blended uniformly into
the surrounding base metal surface and examined and accepted
in accordance with Supplementary Requirements S6 or S8.
10.3 Repair of Weld Metal Defects by Welding:
10.3.1 The manufacturer may repair weld metal defects if he
meets the requirements of 10.2.3, 10.2.4, 10.3.2, 10.3.3, and
10.4.
10.3.2 The defect shall be removed by suitable mechanical
or thermal cutting or gouging methods and the repair cavity
examined and accepted in accordance with Supplementary
Requirements S7 or S9.
10.3.3 The weld repair shall be blended uniformly into the
surrounding metal surfaces and examined and accepted in
accordance with 9.1 and with Supplementary Requirements S7
or S9.
10.4 Retest—Each length of repaired pipe of a class requiring
a pressure test shall be hydrostatically tested following
repair.
11. Dimensions, Mass, and Permissible Variations
11.1 The wall thickness and weight for welded pipe furnished
to this specification shall be governed by the requirements
of the specification to which the manufacturer ordered
the plate.
11.2 Permissible variations in dimensions at any point in a
length of pipe shall not exceed the following:
11.2.1 Outside Diameter—Based on circumferential measurement,
6 0.5 % of the specified outside diameter.
11.2.2 Out-of-Roundness—The difference between major
and minor outside diameters, 1 %.
11.2.3 Alignment—Using a 10-ft (3-m) straightedge placed
so that both ends are in contact with the pipe, 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm).
11.2.4 Thickness—The minimum wall thickness at any
point in the pipe shall not be more than 0.01 in. (0.3 mm) under
the specified nominal thickness.
11.3 Circumferential welded joints of the same quality as
the longitudinal joints shall be permitted by agreement between
the manufacturer and the purchaser.
11.4 Lengths with unmachined ends shall be within −0,
+1⁄2 in. (−0, +13 mm) of that specified. Lengths with machined
ends shall be as agreed between the manufacturer and the
purchaser.
12. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
12.1 The finished pipe shall be free of injurious defects and
shall have a workmanlike finish. This requirement is to mean
the same as the identical requirement that appears in Specification
A 20/A 20M with respect to steel plate surface finish.
13. Product Marking
13.1 The marking shall be stenciled using a suitable heatresistant
paint or metal stamped using low-stress stamps. Wall
thicknesses under 0.500 in. (12.7 mm) shall not be metal
stamped without prior approval. The purchaser may specify
that material 0.500 in. (12.7 mm) and over shall not be metal
stamped.
13.2 In addition to the marking provision of Specification
A 530, the class marking in accordance with 1.3.3 shall follow
the grade marking, for example, 3CR-33.
13.3 Bar Coding—In addition to the requirements in 13.1
and 13.2, bar coding is acceptable as a supplemental identification
method. The purchaser may specify in the order a
specific bar coding system to be used.

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS

S1. Tension and Bend Tests
S1.1 Tension tests in accordance with 8.1 and bend tests in
accordance with 8.2 shall be made on specimens representing
each length of pipe.
S2. Charpy V-Notch Test (for pipe with nominal wall
thickness of 1⁄2in. (12.7 mm) and greater)
S2.1 Requirements—The acceptable test energies shall be
as shown in Table number A1.15 of Specification A 20/A 20M
for the applicable plate specification unless otherwise stated in
the order. As an alternative, the test temperature may be 10°F
(−12°C).
S2.2 Number of Specimens—Each test shall consist of at
least three specimens.
S2.2.1 One base-metal test shall be made from one pipe
length per heat, per heat-treat charge, and per nominal wall
thickness.
S2.2.2 One weld-metal and one heat-affected zone (HAZ)
metal test shall be made in accordance with NB 4335 of
Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
S2.3 Test Specimen Location and Orientation:
S2.3.1 Base-metal specimens of stress-relieved, normalized,
and normalized and tempered pipe shall be taken in accordance
with the provisions for tension specimens in the body of this
specification.
S2.3.2 Base-metal specimens of quenched and tempered
pipe shall be taken in accordance with the provisions of NB
2225 of Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code.
S3. Hardness Tests
S3.1 Hardness determination shall be made on both ends of
each length of pipe to the parent metal, weld, and the
heat-affected zone and must meet the hardness requirements in
Table 1.
S4. Product Analysis
S4.1 Product analysis shall be made on each length of pipe.
Individual lengths failing to conform to the chemical requirements
prescribed in the applicable specification listed in Table
1 shall be rejected.
S5. Metallography
S5.1 The manufacturer shall furnish one photomicrograph
to show the microstructure at 1003 magnification of the weld
metal or base metal of the pipe in the as-finished condition. The
purchaser shall state in the order: the material, base metal or
weld, and the number and locations of tests to be made. This
test is for information only.
S6. Magnetic Particle Examination of Base Metal
S6.1 All accessible surfaces of the pipe shall be examined in
accordance with Practice E 709. Accessible is defined as: All
outside surfaces, all inside surfaces of pipe 24 in. (610 mm) in
diameter and greater, and inside surfaces of pipe less than 24
in. in diameter for a distance of one pipe diameter from the
ends.
S6.2 Butt-weld end preparations are to be completely
magnetic-particle examined in accordance with Practice E 709.
S6.3 Acceptance Standards, shall be by agreement between
the manufacturer and the purchaser.
S7. Magnetic Particle Examinations of Weld Metal
S7.1 All accessible welds shall be examined in accordance
with Practice E 709. Accessible is defined as: All outside
surfaces, all inside surfaces of pipe 24 in. (610 mm) in diameter
and greater, and inside surfaces of pipe less than 24 in. in
diameter for a distance of one pipe diameter from the ends.
S7.2 Butt-weld end preparations are to be completely
magnetic-particle examined in accordance with Practice E 709.
S7.3 Acceptance Standards, shall be by agreement between
the manufacturer and the purchaser.
S8. Liquid Penetrant Examination of Base Metal
S8.1 All accessible surfaces of the pipe shall be examined in
accordance with Test Method E 165. Accessible is as defined in
S7.1.
S8.2 Butt-weld end preparations are to be completely liquid
penetrant examined in accordance with Test Method E 165.
S8.3 Acceptance Standards, shall be by agreement between
the manufacturer and the purchaser.
S9. Liquid Penetrant Examination of Weld Metal
S9.1 All accessible surfaces of the pipe shall be examined in
accordance with Test Method E 165. Accessible is as defined in
S6.1.
S9.2 Acceptance Standards, shall be by agreement between
the manufacturer and the purchaser.
S10. Ultrasonic Test
S10.1 Plate in Flat:
S10.1.1 One hundred percent on one surface shall be
scanned.
S10.1.2 Straight search shall be used in accordance with
Specification A 435/A435M.
S10.1.3 Acceptance standards shall be in accordance with
Specification A 435/A 435M or as by agreement between the
manufacturer and the purchaser.
S11. Repair Welding
S11.1 Repair of base metal defects by welding shall be done
only with customer approval.

S12. Description of Term
S12.1 lot—all pipe of the same mill heat of plate material
and wall thickness (within 61⁄4 in. (6.4 mm)) heat treated in
one furnace charge. For pipe that is not heat treated or that is
heat treated in a continuous furnace, a lot shall consist of each
200 ft (61 m) or fraction thereof of all pipe of the same mill
heat of plate material and wall thickness (within 61⁄4 in. (6.4
mm)), subjected to the same heat treatment. For pipe heat
treated in a batch-type furnace that is automatically controlled
within a 50°F (28°C) range and is equipped with recording
pyrometers so that heating records are available, a lot shall be
defined the same as for continuous furnaces.