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SS pipe grades.

A249/ A249M A269 A270 A778 A335/ A335M A691
A790 A312 A409 A554 A358/ A358M A928/ A928M


CS pipe Grades

A 106 A53 API5L A671 A672

A53 Chemical Properties :

Composition, % Type S(Seamless pipe) Type E(electric-resistance-welded) Type F(furnace-welded pipe)
Grade A Grade B Grade A Grade B Grade A
Carbon, max 0.25 0.30 0.25 0.30 0.30
Manganese 0.95 1.20 0.95 1.20 1.20
Phosphorus, max 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Sulphur, max 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Copper, max 0.40 0.40 0.50 0.50 0.40
Nickel, max 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Chromium, max 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Molybdenum, max 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Vanadium, max 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

 

A53 Mechanical Properties :

  Grade A Grade B
Tensile Strength, min: 48,000 psi [330 MPa] 60,000 psi [415 MPa]
Yield Strength, min: 30,000psi [205 MPa] 35,000psi [240 MPa]

 

Designation: A 53/A 53M – 07

Standard Specification for
Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and
Seamless

This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 53/A 53M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope*
1.1 This specification2 covers seamless and welded black
and hot-dipped galvanized steel pipe in NPS 1⁄8 to NPS 26 [DN
6 to DN 650] (Note 1), inclusive, with nominal wall thickness
(Note 2) as given in Table X2.2 and Table X2.3. It shall be
permissible to furnish pipe having other dimensions provided
that such pipe complies with all other requirements of this
specification. Supplementary requirements of an optional nature
are provided and shall apply only when specified by the
purchaser.
NOTE 1—The dimensionless designators NPS (nominal pipe size) [DN
(diameter nominal)] have been substituted in this specification for such
traditional terms as “nominal diameter,” “size,” and “nominal size.”
NOTE 2—The term nominal wall thickness has been assigned for the
purpose of convenient designation, existing in name only, and is used to
distinguish it from the actual wall thickness, which may vary over or
under the nominal wall thickness.
1.2 This specification covers the following types and
grades:
1.2.1 Type F—Furnace-butt-welded, continuous welded
Grade A,
1.2.2 Type E—Electric-resistance-welded, Grades A and B,
and
1.2.3 Type S—Seamless, Grades A and B.
NOTE 3—See Appendix X1 for definitions of types of pipe.
1.3 Pipe ordered under this specification is intended for
mechanical and pressure applications and is also acceptable for
ordinary uses in steam, water, gas, and air lines. It is suitable
for welding, and suitable for forming operations involving
coiling, bending, and flanging, subject to the following qualifications:
1.3.1 Type F is not intended for flanging.
1.3.2 If Type S or Type E is required for close coiling or
cold bending, Grade A is the preferred grade; however, this is
not intended to prohibit the cold bending of Grade B pipe.
1.3.3 Type E is furnished either nonexpanded or cold
expanded at the option of the manufacturer.
1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units
are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in
each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each
system is to be used independently of the other.
1.5 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the
test method portion, Sections 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, and 15 of this
specification: This standard does not purport to address all of
the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate
safety and health practices and determine the applicability
of regulatory requirements prior to use.
1.6 The text of this specification contains notes or footnotes,
or both, that provide explanatory material. Such notes and
footnotes, excluding those in tables and figures, do not contain
any mandatory requirements.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards: 3
A 90/A 90M Test Method for Weight [Mass] of Coating on
Iron and Steel Articles with Zinc or Zinc-Alloy Coatings
A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing
of Steel Products
A 530/A 530M Specification for General Requirements for
Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe
A 700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading
Methods for Steel Products for Shipment
A 751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for
Chemical Analysis of Steel Products
A 865 Specification for Threaded Couplings, Steel, Black
or Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Welded or Seamless, for Use
in Steel Pipe Joints 1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,
Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
A01.09 on Carbon Steel Tubular Products.
Current edition approved Sept. 1, 2007. Published October 2007. Originally
approved in 1915. Last previous edition approved in 2006 as A 53/A 53M – 06a.
2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related Specification
SA-53 in Section II of that code.
3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.

B 6 Specification for Zinc
E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to
Determine Conformance with Specifications
E 213 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe
and Tubing
E 273 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of the Weld
Zone of Welded Pipe and Tubing
E 309 Practice for Eddy-Current Examination of Steel Tubular
Products Using Magnetic Saturation
E 570 Practice for Flux Leakage Examination of Ferromagnetic
Steel Tubular Products
E 1806 Practice for Sampling Steel and Iron for Determination
of Chemical Composition
2.2 ANSI Standards:
ASC X124
B1.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose4
2.3 ASME Standard:
B36.10M Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe5
2.4 Military Standards:
MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage6
MIL-STD-163 Steel Mill Products Preparation for Shipment
and Storage6
2.5 Federal Standards:
Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment (Civil Agencies)7
Fed. Std. No 183 Continuous Identification Marking of Iron
and Steel Products7
2.6 API Standard:
5B Specification for Threading, Gauging, and Thread Inspection
of Casing, Tubing, and Line Pipe Threads8
3. Ordering Information
3.1 Information items to be considered, if appropriate, for
inclusion in the purchase order are as follows:
3.1.1 Specification designation (A 53 or A 53M, including
year-date),
3.1.2 Quantity (feet, metres, or number of lengths),
3.1.3 Grade (A or B),
3.1.4 Type (F, E, or S; see 1.2),
3.1.5 Finish (black or galvanized),
3.1.6 Size (either nominal (NPS) [DN] and weight class or
schedule number, or both; or outside diameter and wall
thickness, see Table X2.2 and Table X2.3),
3.1.7 Length (specific or random, see Section 16),
3.1.8 End finish (plain end or threaded, Section 11),
3.1.8.1 Threaded and coupled, if desired,
3.1.8.2 Threads only (no couplings), if desired,
3.1.8.3 Plain end, if desired,
3.1.8.4 Couplings power tight, if desired,
3.1.8.5 Taper-tapped couplings for NPS 2 [DN 50] and
smaller, if desired,
3.1.9 Close coiling, if desired (see 7.2.2),
3.1.10 Nondestructive electric test for seamless pipe (see
9.2),
3.1.11 Certification (see Section 20),
3.1.12 Report of the length of the end effect, if desired (see
9.2.7),
3.1.13 Marking (see Section 21),
3.1.14 End use of pipe,
3.1.15 Special requirements,
3.1.16 Supplementary requirements, if any,
3.1.17 Selection of applicable level of preservation and
packaging and level of packing required, if other than as
specified or if MIL-STD-163 applies (see 22.1), and
3.1.18 Packaging and package marking, if desired (see
23.1).
4. Materials and Manufacture
4.1 The steel for both seamless and welded pipe shall be
made by one or more of the following processes: open-hearth,
electric-furnace, or basic-oxygen.
4.2 If steels of different grades are sequentially strand cast,
identification of the resultant transition material is required.
The steel producer shall remove the transition material by any
established procedure that positively separates the grades.
4.3 The weld seam of electric-resistance welded pipe in
Grade B shall be heat treated after welding to a minimum of
1000 °F [540 °C] so that no untempered martensite remains, or
otherwise processed in such a manner that no untempered
martensite remains.
4.4 When pipe is cold expanded, the amount of expansion
shall not exceed 11⁄2 % of the specified outside diameter of the
pipe.
5. Chemical Composition
5.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements as to
chemical composition given in Table 1 and the chemical

analysis shall be in accordance with Test Methods, Practices,
and Terminology A 751.
6. Product Analysis
6.1 The purchaser is permitted to perform an analysis of two
pipes from each lot of 500 lengths, or fraction thereof. Samples
for chemical analysis, except for spectrographic analysis, shall
be taken in accordance with Practice E 1806. The chemical
composition thus determined shall conform to the requirements
given in Table 1.
6.2 If the analysis of either pipe does not conform to the
requirements given in Table 1, analyses shall be made on
additional pipes of double the original number from the same
lot, each of which shall conform to the specified requirements.
7. Mechanical Properties
7.1 Tension Test:
7.1.1 For tension tests other than transverse weld tension
tests, the yield strength corresponding to a permanent offset of
0.2 % of the gage length or to an extension of 0.5 % of the gage
length under load, the tensile strength, and the elongation in 2
in. or 50 mm shall be determined, and the tension test results
shall conform to the applicable tensile property requirements
given in Table 2.
7.1.2 For transverse weld tension tests, the tensile strength
shall be determined, and the tension test results shall conform
to the applicable tensile strength requirement given in Table 2.
7.1.3 Electric-resistance-welded pipe NPS 8 [DN 200] or
larger shall be tested using two transverse test specimens, one
taken across the weld and one taken opposite the weld.
7.1.4 Transverse tension test specimens shall be approximately
11⁄2 in. [38 mm] wide in the gage length and shall
represent the full wall thickness of the pipe from which the test
specimens were cut.
7.2 Bend Test:
7.2.1 For pipe NPS 2 [DN 50] or smaller, a sufficient length
of pipe shall be capable of being bent cold through 90° around
a cylindrical mandrel, the diameter of which is twelve times the
specified outside diameter of the pipe, without developing
cracks at any portion and without opening the weld.

7.2.2 If ordered for close coiling, the pipe shall stand being
bent cold through 180° around a cylindrical mandrel, the
diameter of which is eight times the specified outside diameter
of the pipe, without failure.
7.2.3 Double-extra-strong pipe over NPS 11⁄4 [DN 32] need
not be subjected to the bend test.
7.3 Flattening Test:
7.3.1 The flattening test shall be made on welded pipe over
NPS 2 [DN 50] in extra-strong weight or lighter.
7.3.2 Seamless Pipe:
7.3.2.1 Although testing is not required, pipe shall be
capable of meeting the flattening test requirements of Supplementary
Requirement S1, if tested.
7.3.3 Electric-Resistance-Welded Pipe:
7.3.3.1 A test specimen at least 4 in. [100 mm] in length
shall be flattened cold between parallel plates in three steps,
with the weld located either 0° or 90° from the line of direction
of force as required by 7.3.3.2 or 7.3.3.3, whichever is
applicable. During the first step, which is a test for ductility of
the weld, except as allowed by 7.3.5, 7.3.6, and 7.3.7, no cracks
or breaks on the inside or outside surface at the weld shall be
present before the distance between the plates is less than two
thirds of the specified outside diameter of the pipe. As a second
step, the flattening shall be continued as a test for ductility
away from the weld. During the second step, except as allowed
by 7.3.6 and 7.3.7, no cracks or breaks on the inside or outside
surface away from the weld shall be present before the distance
between the plates is less than one third of the specified outside
diameter of the pipe but is not less than five times the specified
wall thickness of the pipe. During the third step, which is a test
for soundness, the flattening shall be continued until the test
specimen breaks or the opposite walls of the test specimen
meet. Evidence of laminated or unsound material or of incomplete
weld that is revealed by the flattening test shall be cause
for rejection.
7.3.3.2 For pipe produced in single lengths, the flattening
test specified in 7.3.3.1 shall be made using a test specimen
taken from each end of each length of pipe. The tests from each
end shall be made alternately with the weld at 0° and at 90°
from the line of direction of force.
7.3.3.3 For pipe produced in multiple lengths, the flattening
test specified in 7.3.3.1 shall be made as follows:
(1) Test specimens taken from, and representative of, the
front end of the first pipe intended to be supplied from each
coil, the back end of the last pipe intended to be supplied from
each coil, and each side of any intermediate weld stop location
shall be flattened with the weld located at 90° from the line of
direction of force.
(2) Test specimens taken from pipe at any two locations
intermediate to the front end of the first pipe and the back end
of the last pipe intended to be supplied from each coil shall be
flattened with the weld located at 0° from the line of direction
of force.
7.3.3.4 For pipe that is to be subsequently reheated throughout
its cross section and hot formed by a reducing process, the
manufacturer shall have the option of obtaining the flattening
test specimens required by 7.3.3.2 or 7.3.3.3, whichever is
applicable, either prior to or after such hot reducing.

7.3.4 Continuous-Welded Pipe—A test specimen at least 4
in. [100 mm] in length shall be flattened cold between parallel
plates in three steps. The weld shall be located at 90° from the
line of direction of force. During the first step, which is a test
for ductility of the weld, except as allowed by 7.3.5, 7.3.6, and
7.3.7, no cracks or breaks on the inside, outside, or end
surfaces at the weld shall be present before the distance
between the plates is less than three fourths of the specified
outside diameter of the pipe. As a second step, the flattening
shall be continued as a test for ductility away from the weld.
During the second step, except as allowed by 7.3.6 and 7.3.7,
no cracks or breaks on the inside, outside, or end surfaces away
from the weld shall be present before the distance between the
plates is less than 60 % of the specified outside diameter of the
pipe. During the third step, which is a test for soundness, the
flattening shall be continued until the test specimen breaks or
the opposite walls of the test specimen meet. Evidence of
laminated or unsound material or of incomplete weld that is
revealed by the flattening test shall be cause for rejection.
7.3.5 Surface imperfections in the test specimen before
flattening, but revealed during the first step of the flattening
test, shall be judged in accordance with the finish requirements
in Section 12.
7.3.6 Superficial ruptures as a result of surface imperfections
shall not be cause for rejection.
7.3.7 For pipe with a D-to-t ratio less than 10, because the
strain imposed due to geometry is unreasonably high on the
inside surface at the 6 and 12 o’clock locations, cracks at such
locations shall not be cause for rejection.
8. Hydrostatic Test
8.1 The hydrostatic test shall be applied, without leakage
through the weld seam or the pipe body.
8.2 Plain-end pipe shall be hydrostatically tested to the
applicable pressure given in Table X2.2, and threaded-andcoupled
pipe shall be hydrostatically tested to the applicable
pressure given in Table X2.3. It shall be permissible, at the
discretion of the manufacturer, to perform the hydrostatic test
on pipe with plain ends, with threads only, or with threads and
couplings; and it shall also be permissible to test pipe in either
single lengths or multiple lengths.
NOTE 4—The hydrostatic test pressures given herein are inspection test
pressures, are not intended as a basis for design, and do not have any direct
relationship to working pressures.
8.3 The minimum hydrostatic test pressure required to
satisfy the requirements specified in 8.2 need not exceed 2500
psi [17 200 kPa] for pipe NPS 3 [DN 80] or smaller, or 2800
psi [19 300 kPa] for pipe larger than NPS 3 [DN 80]; however,
the manufacturer has the option of using higher test pressures.
For all sizes of seamless pipe and electric-resistance-welded
pipe, the hydrostatic test pressure shall be maintained for at
least 5 s.
9. Nondestructive Electric Test
9.1 Type E Pipe:
9.1.1 Except for pipe produced on a hot-stretch reducing
mill, the weld seam of each length of electric-resistancewelded
pipe NPS 2 [DN 50] or larger shall be tested with a
nondestructive electric test in accordance with Practices E 213,
E 273, E 309, or E 570. Each length of electric-resistancewelded
pipe NPS 2 [DN 50] or larger and produced on a
hot-stretch-reducing mill shall be tested with a nondestructive
electric test that inpsects the full volume of the pipe in
accordance with Practices E 213, E 309, or E 570.
9.1.2 Ultrasonic and Electromagnetic Inspection—Any
equipment utilizing the ultrasonic or electromagnetic principles
and capable of continuous and uninterrupted inspection of the
weld seam shall be used. The equipment shall be checked with
an applicable reference standard as described in 9.1.3 at least
once every working turn or not more than 8 h to demonstrate
its effectiveness and the inspection procedures. The equipment
shall be adjusted to produce well-defined indications when the
reference standard is scanned by the inspection unit in a
manner simulating the inspection of the product.
9.1.3 Reference Standards—The length of the reference
standards shall be determined by the pipe manufacturer, and
they shall have the same specified diameter and thickness as
the product being inspected. Reference standards shall contain
machined notches, one on the inside surface and one on the
outside surface, or a drilled hole, as shown in Fig. 1, at the
option of the pipe manufacturer. The notches shall be parallel
to the weld seam, and shall be separated by a distance sufficient
to produce two separate and distinguishable signals. The 1⁄8-in.
[3.2-mm] hole shall be drilled through the wall and perpendicular
to the surface of the reference standard as shown in Fig.
1. Care shall be taken in the preparation of the reference
standard to ensure freedom from fins or other edge roughness,
or distortion of the pipe.
NOTE 5—The calibration standards shown in Fig. 1 are convenient
standards for calibration of nondestructive testing equipment. The dimensions
of such standards are not to be construed as the minimum sizes of
imperfections detectable by such equipment.
9.1.4 Acceptance Limits—Table 3 gives the height of acceptance
limit signals in percent of the height of signals produced
by reference standards. Imperfections in the weld seam that
produce a signal greater than the acceptance limit signal given
in Table 3 shall be considered a defect unless the pipe
manufacturer can demonstrate that the imperfection does not
reduce the effective wall thickness beyond 12.5 % of the
specified wall thickness.
9.2 Type S Pipe—As an alternative to the hydrostatic test at
the option of the manufacturer or if specified in the purchase
order, the full body of each seamless pipe shall be tested with
a nondestructive electric test in accordance with Practice
E 213, E 309, or E 570. In such cases, each length so furnished
shall include the mandatory marking of the letters “NDE.”
Except as allowed by 9.2.6.2, it is the intent of this nondestructive
electric test to reject pipe with imperfections that produce
test signals equal to or greater than those produced by the
applicable calibration standards.
9.2.1 If the nondestructive electric test has been performed,
the lengths shall be marked with the letters “NDE.” The
certification, if required, shall state Nondestructive Electric
Tested and shall indicate which of the tests was applied. Also,
the letters NDE shall be appended to the product specification
number and grade shown on the certification.

9.2.2 The following information is intended to facilitate the
use of this specification:
9.2.2.1 The calibration standards defined in 9.2.3 through
9.2.5 are convenient standards for calibration of nondestructive
testing equipment. The dimensions of such standards are not to
be construed as the minimum sizes of imperfections detectable
by such equipment.
9.2.2.2 The ultrasonic testing referred to in this specification
is capable of detecting the presence and location of significant
longitudinally or circumferentially oriented imperfections;
however, different techniques need to be employed for the
detection of differently oriented imperfections. Ultrasonic testing
is not necessarily capable of detecting short, deep imperfections.
9.2.2.3 The eddy current examination referenced in this
specification has the capability of detecting significant discontinuities,
especially of the short abrupt type.
9.2.2.4 The flux leakage examination referred to in this
specification is capable of detecting the presence and location
of significant longitudinally or transversely oriented discontinuities.
The provisions of this specification only require
longitudinal calibration for flux leakage. Different techniques
need to be employed for the detection of differently oriented
imperfections.
9.2.2.5 The hydrostatic test referred to in 8.2 has the
capability of finding imperfections of a size permitting the test
fluid to leak through the tube wall and may be either visually
seen or detected by a loss of pressure. Hydrostatic testing is not
necessarily capable of detecting very tight through-the-wall
imperfections or imperfections that extend an appreciable
distance into the wall without complete penetration.
9.2.2.6 A purchaser interested in ascertaining the nature
(type, size, location, and orientation) of imperfections that are
capable of being detected in the specific application of these
examinations is directed to discuss this with the manufacturer
of the tubular product.
9.2.3 For ultrasonic testing, the calibration reference
notches shall be at the option of the manufacturer, and shall be
any one of the three common notch shapes shown in Practice
E 213. The depth of notch shall not exceed 12.5 % of the
specified wall thickness of the pipe or 0.004 in. [0.1 mm],
whichever is the greater.
9.2.4 For eddy current testing, the calibration pipe shall
contain, at the option of the manufacturer, any one of the
following calibration standards to establish a minimum sensitivity
level for rejection.
9.2.4.1 Drilled Hole—The calibration pipe shall contain
three holes spaced 120° apart or four holes spaced 90° apart,
sufficiently separated longitudinally to ensure separately distinguishable
responses. The holes shall be drilled radially and
completely through the pipe wall, care being taken to avoid
distortion of the pipe while drilling. Dependent upon the
nominal pipe size, the calibration pipe shall contain the
following hole:

9.2.4.2 Transverse Tangential Notch—Using a round tool or
file with a 1⁄4 in. [6 mm] diameter, a notch shall be filed or
milled tangential to the surface and transverse to the longitudinal
axis of the pipe. The notch shall have a depth not
FIG. 1 Calibration Standards
TABLE 3 Acceptance Limits
Type Notch Size of Hole Acceptance
Limit
in. mm Signal, %
N10, V10
B, P
1⁄8
...
3.2
...
100
80
A 53/A 53M – 07
5
exceeding 12.5 % of the specified wall thickness of the pipe or
0.012 in. [0.3 mm], whichever is the greater.
9.2.4.3 Longitudinal Notch—A notch 0.031 in. [0.8 mm] or
less in width shall be machined in a radial plane parallel to the
pipe axis on the outside surface of the pipe, to a depth not
exceeding 12.5 % of the specified wall thickness of the pipe or
0.012 in. [0.3 mm], whichever is the greater. The length of the
notch shall be compatible with the testing method.
9.2.4.4 Compatibility—The calibration standards in the calibration
pipe shall be compatible with the testing equipment and
the method being used.
9.2.5 For flux leakage testing, the longitudinal calibration
reference notches shall be straight-sided notches machined in a
radial plane parallel to the pipe axis. For specified wall
thicknesses less than 0.500 in. [12.7 mm], outside and inside
notches shall be used. For specified wall thicknesses equal to or
greater than 0.500 in. [12.7 mm], only an outside notch shall be
used. The notch depth shall not exceed 12.5 % of the specified
wall thickness, or 0.012 in. [0.3 mm], whichever is the greater.
The notch length shall not exceed 1 in. [25 mm], and the notch
width shall not exceed the notch depth. Outside diameter and
inside diameter notches shall be located sufficiently apart to
allow separation and identification of the signals.
9.2.6 Pipe containing one or more imperfections that produce
a signal equal to or greater than the signal produced by the
calibration standard shall be rejected or the area producing the
signal shall be rejected.
9.2.6.1 Test signals produced by imperfections that cannot
be identified, or produced by cracks or crack-like imperfections,
shall result in rejection of the pipe, unless it is repaired
and retested. To be accepted, the pipe shall pass the same
specification test to which it was originally subjected and the
remaining wall thickness shall not have been decreased below
that permitted by the specification. It shall be permissible to
reduce the outside diameter at the point of grinding by the
amount so removed.
9.2.6.2 It shall be permissible to evaluate test signals produced
by visual imperfections in accordance with the provisions
of Section 12. A few examples of such imperfections are
straightener marks, cutting chips, scratches, steel die stamps,
stop marks, or pipe reducer ripple.
9.2.7 The test methods described in Section 9 are not
necessarily capable of inspecting the end portion of pipes. This
condition is referred to as end effect. The length of the end
effect shall be determined by the manufacturer and, if specified
in the purchase order, reported to the purchaser.
10. Permissible Variations in Weight (Mass) and
Dimensions
10.1 Weight (Mass)—The weight (mass) of the pipe shall
not vary more than 6 10 % from its specified weight (mass), as
derived by multiplying its measured length by its specified
weight (mass) per unit length, as given in Table X2.2 or Table
X2.3, or as calculated using the relevant equation in ASME
B36.10M.
NOTE 6—For pipe NPS 4 [DN 100] or smaller, the weight (mass)
tolerance is applicable to the weights (masses) of the customary lifts of
pipe as produced for shipment by the mill. For pipe larger than NPS 4 [DN
100], where individual lengths are weighed, the weight (mass) tolerance is
applicable to the individual lengths.
10.2 Diameter—For pipe NPS 11⁄2 [DN 40] or smaller, the
outside diameter at any point shall not vary more than 6 1⁄64 in.
[0.4 mm] from the specified outside diameter. For pipe NPS 2
[DN 50] or larger, the outside diameter shall not vary more
than 6 1 % from the specified outside diameter.
10.3 Thickness—The minimum wall thickness at any point
shall be not more than 12.5 % under the specified wall
thickness. The minimum wall thickness on inspection shall
conform to the requirements given in Table X2.4.
11. End Finish
11.1 If ordered with plain ends, the pipe shall be furnished
to the following practice, unless otherwise specified.
11.1.1 NPS 11⁄2 [DN 40] or Smaller—Unless otherwise
specified in the purchase order, end finish shall be at the option
of the manufacturer.
11.1.2 Larger than NPS 11⁄2 [DN 40]:
11.1.2.1 Pipe of standard-weight or extra-strong weight, or
in wall thickness less than 0.500 in. [12.7 mm], other than
double extra-strong weight pipe, shall be plain-end beveled
with ends beveled to an angle of 30°, +5°, -0°, measured from
a line drawn perpendicular to the axis of the pipe, and with a
root face of 1⁄16 in. 6 1⁄32 in. [1.6 mm 6 0.8 mm].
11.1.2.2 Pipe with a specified wall thickness greater than
0.500 in. [12.7 mm], and all double extra-strong weight pipe,
shall be plain-end square cut.
11.2 If ordered with threaded ends, the pipe ends shall be
provided with a thread in accordance with the gaging practice
and tolerances of ANSI B1.20.1. For standard-weight pipe NPS
6 [DN 150] or smaller, refer to Table X3.1 for threading data.
For standard-weight pipe NPS 8 [DN 200] or larger and all
sizes of extra-strong weight pipe and double extra-strong
weight pipe, refer to Table X3.2 for threading data. Threaded
pipe NPS 4 [DN 100] or larger shall have thread protectors on
the ends not protected by a coupling.
11.3 If ordered with couplings, one end of each length of
pipe shall be provided with a coupling manufactured in
accordance with Specification A 865. The coupling threads
shall be in accordance with the gaging practice of ANSI
B1.20.1. The coupling shall be applied handling-tight, unless
power-tight is specified in the purchase order. Couplings are to
be made of steel. Taper-tapped couplings shall be furnished on
all threaded pipe NPS 21⁄2 [DN 65] or larger. For pipe smaller
than NPS 21⁄2 [DN 65], it is regular practice to furnish
straight-tapped couplings for standard-weight pipe and tapertapped
couplings for extra-strong and double extra-strong
weight pipe. If taper-tapped couplings are required for
standard-weight pipe smaller than NPS 21⁄2 [DN 65], it is
recommended that line pipe threads in accordance with API
Specification 5B be ordered. The taper-tapped couplings provided
on line pipe in such sizes may be used on mill-threaded
standard-weight pipe of the same size.
12. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
12.1 The pipe manufacturer shall explore a sufficient number
of visual surface imperfections to provide reasonable
assurance that they have been properly evaluated with respect
to depth.

12.2 Surface imperfections that penetrate more than 12.5 %
of the specified wall thickness or encroach on the minimum
wall thickness shall be considered defects. Pipe with defects
shall be given one or more of the following dispositions:
12.2.1 The defect shall be removed by grinding, provided
that the remaining wall thickness is within specified limits,
12.2.2 Type S pipe and the parent metal of Type E pipe,
except within 1⁄2 in. [13 mm] of the fusion line of the
electric-resistance-weld seam, are permitted to be repaired in
accordance with the welding provisions of 12.5. Repair welding
of Type F pipe and the weld seam of Type E pipe is
prohibited.
12.2.3 The section of pipe containing the defect shall be cut
off within the limits of requirement on length, or
12.2.4 Rejected.
12.3 At the purchaser’s discretion, pipe shall be subjected to
rejection if surface defects repaired in accordance with 12.2 are
not scattered, but appear over a large area in excess of what is
considered a workmanlike finish. Disposition of such pipe shall
be a matter of agreement between the manufacturer and the
purchaser.
12.4 For the removal of imperfections and defects by
grinding, a smooth curved surface shall be maintained, and the
wall thickness shall not be decreased below that permitted by
this specification. It shall be permissible to reduce the outside
diameter at the point of grinding by the amount so removed.
12.4.1 Wall thickness measurements shall be made with a
mechanical caliper or with a properly calibrated nondestructive
testing device of appropriate accuracy. In the case of a dispute,
the measurement determined by use of the mechanical caliper
shall govern.
12.5 Weld repair shall only be permitted with the approval
of the purchaser and in accordance with Specification A 530/
A 530M.
12.6 The finished pipe shall be reasonably straight.
12.7 The pipe shall contain no dents greater than 10 % of
the pipe diameter or 1⁄4 in. [6 mm], whichever is smaller,
measured as the gap between the lowest point of the dent and
a prolongation of the original contour of the pipe. Cold-formed
dents deeper than 1⁄8 in. [3 mm] shall be free of sharp-bottomed
gouges; it shall be permissible to remove the gouges by
grinding, provided that the remaining wall thickness is within
specified limits. The length of the dent in any direction shall
not exceed one half the specified outside diameter of the pipe.
13. Number of Tests
13.1 Except as required by 13.2, one of each of the tests
specified in Section 7 shall be made on test specimens taken
from one length of pipe from each lot of each pipe size. For
continuous-welded pipe, each lot shall contain no more than 25
tons [23 Mg] of pipe for pipe sizes NPS 11⁄2 [DN 40] and
smaller, and no more than 50 tons [45 Mg] of pipe for pipe
sizes larger than NPS 11⁄2 [DN 40]. For seamless and electricresistance-
welded pipe, a lot shall contain no more than one
heat, and at the option of the manufacturer shall contain no
more than 500 lengths of pipe (as initially cut after the final
pipe-forming operation, prior to any further cutting to the
required ordered lengths) or 50 tons [45 Mg] of pipe.
13.2 The number of flattening tests for electric-resistancewelded
pipe shall be in accordance with 7.3.3.2 or 7.3.3.3,
whichever is applicable.
13.3 Except as allowed by 9.2, each length of pipe shall be
subjected to the hydrostatic test (see Section 8).
14. Retests
14.1 Except for flattening tests of electric-resistance-welded
pipe, if the results of a mechanical test for a lot fail to conform
to the applicable requirements specified in Section 7, the lot
shall be rejected unless tests of additional pipe from the
affected lot of double the number originally tested are subsequently
made and each such test conforms to the specified
requirements. Only one retest of any lot will be permitted. Any
individual length of pipe that conforms to the test requirements
is acceptable. Any individual length of pipe that does not
conform to the test requirements may be resubmitted for test
and will be considered acceptable if tests taken from each pipe
end conform to the specified requirements.
14.2 Electric-Resistance-Welded Pipe Produced in Single
Lengths—If any flattening test result fails to conform to the
requirements specified in 7.3.3, the affected single length shall
be rejected unless the failed end is subsequently retested using
the same weld orientation as the failed test and a satisfactory
test result is obtained before the pipe’s length is reduced by
such testing to less than 80 % of its length after the initial
cropping.
14.3 Electric-Resistance-Welded Pipe Produced in Multiple
Lengths—If any flattening test result fails to conform to the
requirements specified in 7.3.3, the affected multiple length
shall be rejected or flattening tests shall be made using a test
specimen taken from each end of each individual length in the
failed multiple length. For each pipe end, such tests shall be
made with the weld alternately at 0° and 90° from the line of
direction of force. Individual lengths are considered acceptable
if the test results for both pipe ends conform to the specified
requirements.
15. Test Methods
15.1 The test specimens and the tests required by this
specification shall conform to those described in the latest issue
of Test Methods and Definitions A 370.
15.2 Each longitudinal tension test specimen shall be taken
from a pipe end and shall not be flattened between the gage
marks.
15.3 Test specimens for bend tests and flattening tests shall
be taken from pipe. Test specimens for flattening tests shall be
smooth on the ends and free from burrs.
15.4 Tests shall be conducted at room temperature.
16. Lengths
16.1 Unless otherwise specified, pipe lengths shall be in
accordance with the following regular practices:
16.1.1 Except as allowed by 16.1.2 and 16.1.4, pipe lighter
than extra-strong weight shall be in single-random lengths of
16 to 22 ft [4.88 to 6.71 m], with not more than 5 % of the total
number of threaded lengths furnished being jointers (two
pieces coupled together).

16.1.2 For plain-end pipe lighter than extra-strong weight, it
shall be permissible for not more than 5 % of the total number
of pipe to be in lengths of 12 to 16 ft [3.66 to 4.88 m].
16.1.3 Pipe of extra-strong weight or heavier shall be in
random lengths of 12 to 22 ft [3.66 to 6.71 m], except that it
shall be permissible for not more than 5 % of the total of pipe
to be in lengths of 6 to 12 ft [1.83 to 3.66 m].
16.1.4 For extra-strong weight or lighter pipe ordered in
double-random lengths, the minimum lengths shall be not less
than 22 ft [6.71 m] and the minimum average length for the
order shall be not less than 35 ft [10.67 m].
16.1.5 For pipe heavier than extra-strong weight ordered in
lengths longer than single random, the lengths shall be as
agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
16.1.6 If pipe is furnished threaded and coupled, the length
shall be measured to the outer face of the coupling.
17. Galvanized Pipe
17.1 Galvanized pipe ordered under this specification shall
be coated with zinc inside and outside by the hot-dip process.
The zinc used for the coating shall be any grade of zinc
conforming to Specification B 6.
17.2 Weight (Mass) per Unit Area of Coating—The weight
(mass) per unit area of zinc coating shall be not less than 1.8
oz/ft2 [0.55 kg/m2] as determined from the average results of
the two specimens taken for test in the manner prescribed in
17.5 and not less than 1.6 oz/ft2 [0.49 kg/m2] for each of these
specimens. The weight (mass) per unit area of coating, expressed
in ounces per square foot [kilograms per square metre]
shall be calculated by dividing the total weight (mass) of zinc,
inside plus outside, by the total area, inside plus outside, of the
surface coated. Each specimen shall have not less than 1.3
oz/ft2 [0.40 kg/m2] of zinc coating on each surface, calculated
by dividing the total weight (mass) of zinc on the given surface
(outside or inside) by the area of the surface coated (outside or
inside).
17.3 Weight (Mass) per Unit Area of Coating Test—The
weight (mass) per unit area of zinc coating shall be determined
by stripping tests in accordance with Test MethodA 90/A 90M.
17.4 Test Specimens—Test specimens for determination of
weight (mass) per unit area of coating shall be cut approximately
4 in. [100 mm] in length.
17.5 Number of Tests—Two test specimens for the determination
of weight (mass) per unit area of coating shall be taken,
one from each end of one length of galvanized pipe selected at
random from each lot of 500 lengths, or fraction thereof, of
each size.
17.6 Retests—If the weight (mass) per unit area of coating
of any lot does not conform to the requirements specified in
17.2, retests of two additional pipes from the same lot shall be
made, each of which shall conform to the specified requirements.
17.7 If pipe ordered under this specification is to be galvanized,
the tension, flattening, and bend tests shall be made on
the base material before galvanizing, if practicable. If specified,
results of the mechanical tests on the base material shall
be reported to the purchaser. If it is impracticable to make the
mechanical tests on the base material before galvanizing, it
shall be permissible to make such tests on galvanized samples,
and any flaking or cracking of the zinc coating shall not be
considered cause for rejection. If galvanized pipe is bent or
otherwise fabricated to a degree that causes the zinc coating to
stretch or compress beyond the limit of elasticity, some flaking
of the coating is acceptable.
18. Inspection
18.1 The inspector representing the purchaser shall have
entry, at all times while work on the contract of the purchaser
is being performed, to all parts of the manufacturer’s works
that concern the manufacture of the pipe ordered. The manufacturer
shall afford the inspector all reasonable facilities to be
satisfied that the pipe is being furnished in accordance with this
specification. All tests (except product analysis) and inspection
shall be made at the place of manufacture prior to shipment,
unless otherwise specified, and shall be so conducted as not to
interfere unnecessarily with the operation of the works.
19. Rejection
19.1 The purchaser is permitted to inspect each length of
pipe received from the manufacturer and, if it does not meet the
requirements of this specification based upon the inspection
and test method as outlined in the specification, the length shall
be rejected and the manufacturer shall be notified. Disposition
of rejected pipe shall be a matter of agreement between the
manufacturer and the purchaser.
19.2 Pipe found in fabrication or in installation to be
unsuitable for the intended use, under the scope and requirements
of this specification, shall be set aside and the manufacturer
notified. Such pipe shall be subject to mutual investigation
as to the nature and severity of the deficiency and the
forming or installation, or both, conditions involved. Disposition
shall be a matter for agreement.
20. Certification
20.1 The manufacturer or supplier shall, upon request,
furnish to the purchaser a certificate of compliance stating that
the material has been manufactured, sampled, tested, and
inspected in accordance with this specification (including
year-date), and has been found to meet the requirements.
20.2 Test Report—For Types E and S, the manufacturer or
supplier shall furnish to the purchaser a chemical analysis
report for the elements given in Table 1.
20.3 EDI—Acertificate of compliance or test report printed
from, or used in, electronic form from an electronic data
interchange (EDI) transmission shall be regarded as having the
same validity as a counterpart printed in the certifier’s facility.
The use and format of the EDI document are subject to
agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer or
supplier.
NOTE 7—EDI is the computer to computer exchange of business
information in a standard format such as ANSI ASC X12.
20.4 Notwithstanding the absence of a signature, the organization
submitting the certificate of compliance or test report
is responsible for its content.

21. Product Marking
21.1 Except as allowed by 21.5 and 21.6, each length of
pipe shall be legibly marked in the following sequence to
show:
21.1.1 Manufacturer’s name or mark,
21.1.2 Specification number (year-date not required),
NOTE 8—Pipe that complies with multiple compatible specifications
may be marked with the appropriate designation for each specification.
21.1.3 Size (NPS and weight class, schedule number, or
specified wall thickness; or specified outside diameter and
specified wall thickness),
21.1.4 Grade (A or B),
21.1.5 Type of pipe (F, E, or S),
21.1.6 Test pressure, seamless pipe only (if applicable, in
accordance with Table 4),
21.1.7 Nondestructive electric test, seamless pipe only (if
applicable, in accordance with Table 4),
21.2 Unless another marking format is specified in the
purchase order, length shall be marked in feet and tenths of a
foot, or metres to two decimal places, dependent upon the units
to which the pipe was ordered. The location of such marking
shall be at the option of the manufacturer.
21.3 Heat number, lot number, run number, or a combination
thereof shall be marked at the option of the manufacturer,
unless specific marking is specified in the purchase order. The
location of such marking shall be at the option of the
manufacturer.
21.4 Any additional information desired by the manufacturer
or specified in the purchase order.
21.5 For pipe NPS 11⁄2 [DN 40] and smaller that is bundled,
it shall be permissible to mark the required information on a tag
securely attached to each bundle.
21.6 If pipe sections are cut into shorter lengths by a
processor for resale as pipe, the processor shall transfer the

TABLE 4   Marking of Seamless Pipe
Hydro                         NDE                                  Marking

Yes

No

Test pressure

No

Yes

NDE

Yes

Yes

Test Pressure/NDE

complete identification, including the name or brand of the
manufacturer, to each unmarked cut length, or to metal tags
securely attached to unmarked pipe bundled in accordance with
the requirements of 21.5. The same material designation shall
be included with the information transferred, and the processor’s
name, trademark, or brand shall be added.
21.7 Bar Coding—In addition to the requirements in 21.1,
21.5, and 21.6, bar coding is acceptable as a supplementary
identification method. It is recommended that bar coding be
consistent with the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG)
standard prepared by the Primary Metals Subcommittee of the
AIAG Bar Code Project Team.
22. Government Procurement
22.1 If specified in the contract, the pipe shall be preserved,
packaged, and packed in accordance with the requirements of
MIL-STD-163. The applicable levels shall be as specified in
the contract. Marking for shipment of such pipe shall be in
accordance with Fed. Std. No. 123 for civil agencies and
MIL-STD-129 or Federal Std. No. 183 if continuous marking
is required, for military agencies.
22.2 Inspection—Unless otherwise specified in the contract,
the manufacturer is responsible for the performance of all
inspection and test requirements specified herein. Except as
otherwise specified in the contract, the manufacturer shall use
its own or any other suitable facilities for performing the
inspection and test requirements specified herein, unless otherwise
disapproved by the purchaser in the contract or purchase
order. The purchaser shall have the right to perform any of the
inspections and tests set forth in this specification where
deemed necessary to ensure that the pipe conforms to the
specified requirements.
23. Packaging and Package Marking
23.1 If specified in the purchase order, packaging, marking,
and loading for shipment shall be in accordance with those
procedures recommended by Practices A 700.
24. Keywords
24.1 black steel pipe; seamless steel pipe; steel pipe; welded
steel pipe; zinc coated steel pipe

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS

The following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified in the purchase order.
The purchaser may specify a different frequency of test than is provided in the supplementary
requirement. Subject to agreement between the purchaser and manufacturer, retest and retreatment
provisions of these supplementary requirements may also be modified.

S1. Flattening Test, Seamless Pipe
S1.1 A test specimen at least 21⁄2 in. [60 mm] in length shall
be flattened cold between parallel plates in two steps. During
the first step, which is a test for ductility, except as allowed by
S1.3, S1.4, and S1.5, no cracks or breaks on the inside, outside,
or end surfaces shall be present before the distance between the
plates is less than the value of H calculated as follows:
H 5 ~1 1 e!t/~e 1 t/D!
where:
H = distance between flattening plates, in. [mm],
e = deformation per unit length (constant for a given grade
of steel, 0.09 for Grade A, and 0.07 for Grade B),
t = specified wall thickness, in. [mm], and
D = specified outside diameter, in. [mm]
The H values have been calculated for standard-weight and
extra-heavy weight pipe from NPS 21⁄2 to NPS 24 [DN 65 to
DN 600], inclusive, and are given in Table X2.1.
S1.2 During the second step, which is a test for soundness,
the flattening shall be continued until the test specimen breaks
or the opposite sides of the test specimen meet. Evidence of
laminated or unsound material that is revealed during the entire
flattening test shall be cause for rejection.
S1.3 Surface imperfections in the test specimen before
flattening, but revealed during the first step of the flattening
test, shall be judged in accordance with the finish requirements
in Section 12.
S1.4 Superficial ruptures as a result of surface imperfections
shall not be cause for rejection.
S1.5 For pipe with a D-to-t ratio less than 10, because the
strain imposed due to geometry is unreasonably high on the
inside surface at the 6 and 12 o’clock locations, cracks at such
locations shall not be cause for rejection.
S1.6 One test shall be made on test specimens taken from
one length of pipe from each lot of each pipe size. A lot shall
contain no more than one heat, and at the option of the
manufacturer shall contain no more than 500 lengths of pipe
(as initially cut after the final pipe-forming operation, prior to
any further cutting to the required ordered lengths) or 50 tons
[45 Mg] of pipe.
S1.7 If the results of a test for a lot fail to conform to the
applicable requirements, the lot shall be rejected unless tests of
additional pipe from the affected lot of double the number
originally tested are subsequently made and each such test
conforms to the specified requirements. Only one retest of any
lot will be permitted. Any individual length of pipe that
conforms to the test requirements is acceptable. Any individual
length of pipe that does not conform to the test requirements
may be resubmitted for test and will be considered acceptable
if tests taken from each pipe end conform to the specified
requirements.