Standard Specification for
Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic Chromium-Nickel
Stainless Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service and
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 358/A 358M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
1.1 This specification2 covers electric-fusion-welded austenitic
chromium-nickel stainless steel pipe suitable for corrosive
or high-temperature service, or both, or for general applications.
NOTE 1—The dimensionless designator NPS (nominal pipe size) has
been substituted in this standard for such traditional terms as “nominal
diameter,” “size,” and “nominal size.”
1.2 This specification covers the grades of alloy and stainless
steel listed in Table 1. The selection of the proper grade
and requirements for heat treatment shall be at the discretion of
the purchaser, dependent on the service conditions to be
1.3 Five classes of pipe are covered as follows:
1.3.1 Class 1—Pipe shall be double welded by processes
employing filler metal in all passes and shall be completely
1.3.2 Class 2—Pipe shall be double welded by processes
employing filler metal in all passes. No radiography is required.
1.3.3 Class 3—Pipe shall be single welded by processes
employing filler metal in all passes and shall be completely
1.3.4 Class 4—Same as Class 3 except that the weld pass
exposed to the inside pipe surface may be made without the
addition of filler metal (see 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206).
1.3.5 Class 5—Pipe shall be double welded by processes
employing filler metal in all passes and shall be spot radiographed.
1.4 Supplementary requirements covering provisions ranging
from additional testing to formalized procedures for
manufacturing practice are provided. Supplementary Requirements
S1 through S6 are included as options to be specified
1.5 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units
are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the
SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each
system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must
be used independently of the other. Combining values from the
two systems may result in nonconformance with the specification.
The inch-pound units shall apply unless the “M”
designation of this specification is specified in the order.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards: 3
A 240/A 240M Specification for Chromium and
Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip
for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications
A 262 Practices for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular
Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels
A 480/A 480M Specification for General Requirements for
Flat-Rolled Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate,
Sheet, and Strip
A 941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related
Alloys, and Ferroalloys
A 994 Guide for Editorial Procedures and Form of Product
Specifications for Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys
A 999/A 999M Specification for General Requirements for
Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe
E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS)
2.2 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code:4
Section II, Materials
Section III, Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility
Section VIII, Pressure Vessels
Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications
2.3 AWS Specifications:5
A 5.22 Flux Cored Arc Welding
1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,
Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys, and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
A01.10 on Stainless and Alloy Steel Tubular Products.
Current edition approved March 1, 2005. Published April 2005. Originally
approved in 1952. Last previous edition approved in 2004 as A 358/A 358M – 04.
2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specifications
SA-358 in Section II of that Code.
3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at firstname.lastname@example.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.
4 Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), ASME
International Headquarters, Three Park Ave., New York, NY 10016-5990.
5 Available from The American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW LeJeune Rd.,
Miami, FL 33126.
A 5.30 Consumable Weld Inserts for Gas Tungsten Arc
A 5.4 Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-
Nickel Steel Covered Welding Electrodes
A 5.9 Corrosion-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-
Nickel Steel Welding Rods and Bare Electrodes
A 5.11 Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Covered Welding Electrodes
A 5.14 Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Bare Welding Rods and
2.4 Other Standard:6
SAE J1086 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys
3.1.1 The definitions in Specification A 999/A 999M and
Terminology A 941 are applicable to this specification.
4. Ordering Information
4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to specify
all requirements that are necessary for product under this
specification. Such requirements to be considered include, but
are not limited to, the following:
4.1.1 Quantity (feet, metres, or number of lengths),
4.1.2 Name of material (electric-fusion-welded pipe),
4.1.3 Grade (Table 1),
4.1.4 Class (see 1.3),
4.1.5 Size (outside diameter and nominal wall thickness),
4.1.6 Length (specific or random),
4.1.7 End finish (Section on Ends of Specification A 999/
4.1.8 Authorization for repair of plate defects by welding
and subsequent heat treatment without prior approval if such is
intended (see 9.3),
4.1.9 Specification designation,
4.1.10 Special requirements,
4.1.11 Statement invoking requirements of 16.4 if such is
4.1.12 Circumferential weld permissibility (see Section 16),
4.1.13 Supplementary Requirements (S1 through S6),
4.1.14 Applicable ASME Code if known,
4.1.15 For ASME Code Section III applications, the service
classification intended, and
4.1.16 Certification requirements (see Section on Certification
of Specification A 999/A 999M).
5. General Requirements
5.1 Material furnished to this specification shall conform to
the applicable requirements of the current edition of Specification
A 999/A 999M unless otherwise provided herein.
6. Materials and Manufacture
6.1.1 The steel plate material shall conform to the requirements
of one of the grades of Specification A 240/A 240M,
listed in Table 1, except as provided in 220.127.116.11.
6.2.1 The joints shall be full penetration double-welded or
single-welded butt joints employing fusion welding processes
as defined under “Definitions,” ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code, Section IX. This specification makes no provision
for any difference in weld quality requirements regardless of
the weld joint type employed (single or double) in making the
weld. Where backing rings or strips are employed, the ring or
strip material shall be of the same P-Number (Table QW-422
of Section IX) as the plate being joined. Backing rings or strips
shall be completely removed after welding, prior to any
required radiography, and the exposed weld surface shall be
examined visually for conformance to the requirements of
6.2.3. Welds made by procedures employing backing strips or
rings that remain in place are prohibited. Welding procedures,
and welding operators shall be qualified in accordance with
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX.
6.2.2 Except as provided in 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124, welds shall
be made in their entirety by processes involving the deposition
of filler metal.
126.96.36.199 For Class 4 pipe employing multiple passes, the
root-pass may be without the addition of filler metal.
188.8.131.52 For Class 4 pipe, the weld surface exposed inside the
pipe may result from a single pass made from the inside of the
pipe without the addition of filler metal.
184.108.40.206 All single-welded pipe shall be completely radiographed.
6.2.3 The weld surface on either side of the weld is
permitted to be flush with the base plate or to have a reasonably
uniform crown, not to exceed 1⁄8 in. [3 mm]. It is permitted at
the option of the manufacturer or by agreement between the
manufacturer and purchaser to remove any weld reinforcement.
The contour of the reinforcement should be reasonably
smooth and free from irregularities. The deposited metal shall
be fused uniformly into the plate surface. No concavity of
contour is permitted unless the resulting thickness of weld
metal is equal to or greater than the minimum thickness of the
adjacent base metal.
6.2.4 Weld defects shall be repaired by removal to sound
metal and rewelding. Subsequent heat treatment and examination
(that is, visual, radiographic, and dye penetrant) shall be as
required on the original welds.
6.3 Heat Treatment:
6.3.1 Unless otherwise stated in the order, all pipe shall be
furnished in the heat-treated condition in accordance with the
requirements of Table 2.
6.3.2 The purchase order shall specify one of the following
conditions if the heat-treated condition specified in 6.3.1 is not
desired by the purchaser:
220.127.116.11 A final heat-treatment temperature under 1900 °F
[1040 °C]—Each pipe supplied under this requirement shall be
stenciled with the final heat-treatment temperature in degrees
Fahrenheit or degrees Celsius after the suffix “HT”. Controlled
structural or special service characteristics may be specified as
a guide for the most suitable heat treatment.
18.104.22.168 No final heat treatment of pipe fabricated of plate
that has been solution heat treated at temperatures required by
this specification—Each pipe supplied under this requirement
shall be stenciled with the suffix “HT-O”.
22.214.171.124 No final heat treatment of pipe fabricated of plate
that has not been solution heat treated—Each pipe supplied
under this requirement shall be stenciled with the suffix
6.4 A solution annealing temperature above 1950 °F [1065
°C] may impair the resistance to intergranular corrosion after
subsequent exposure to sensitizing conditions in Grades 321,
321H, 347, 347H, and 348. When specified by the purchaser, a
lower temperature stabilization or re-solution anneal shall be
used subsequent to the initial high temperature solution anneal
(see Supplementary Requirement S5).
7. Chemical Composition
7.1 The chemical composition of the plate shall conform to
the requirements of the applicable specification and grade
listed in Specification A 240/A 240M.
7.2 The chemical composition of the welding filler metal
shall conform to the requirements of the applicable AWS
specification for the corresponding grade shown in Table 1, or
shall conform to the chemical composition specified for the
plate in Specification A 240/A 240M, or shall, subject to
purchaser approval, be a filler metal more highly alloyed than
the base metal when needed for corrosion resistance or other
properties. Use of a filler metal other than that listed in Table
1 or conforming to the chemical composition specified for the
plate in Specification A 240/A 240M shall be reported and the
filler metal identified on the certificate of tests. When nitrogen
and cerium are specified elements for the ordered grade, the
method of analysis for these elements shall be a matter of
agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
8. Permissible Variations in Dimensions
8.1 Permissible Variations—The dimensions at any point in
a length of pipe shall not exceed the following:
8.1.1 Outside Diameter—Based on circumferential measurement,
60.5 % of the specified outside diameter.
8.1.2 Out-of-Roundness—Difference between major and
minor outside diameters, 1 %.
8.1.3 Alignment—Using a 10-ft [3-m] straightedge placed
so that both ends are in contact with the pipe, 1⁄8 in. [3 mm]
deviation from contact with the pipe.
8.1.4 Thickness—The minimum wall thickness at any point
in the pipe shall not be more than 0.01 in. [0.3 mm] under the
9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
9.1 The finished pipe shall have a workmanlike finish.
9.2 Repair of Plate Defects by Machining or Grinding—It is
permitted to repair pipes showing slivers, or other surface
defects, by machining or grounding inside or outside to a depth
that ensures the removal of all included scale and slivers,
provided that the wall thickness is not reduced below the
specified minimum wall thickness. Machining or grinding shall
follow inspection of the pipe as rolled, and shall be followed by
supplementary visual inspection.
9.3 Repair of Plate Defects by Welding—It is permitted to
repair by welding defects that violate minimum wall thickness,
but only with the approval of the purchaser. Areas shall be
suitably prepared for welding with tightly closed defects
removed by grinding. Open, clean defects, such as pits or
impressions, may require no preparation. All welders, welding
operators, and weld procedures shall be qualified to the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX. Unless the
purchaser specifies otherwise, pipe required to be heat treated
under the provisions of 6.3, shall be heat treated or reheat
treated following repair welding. Repaired lengths, where
repair depth is greater than 1⁄4 of the thickness, shall be pressure
tested or repressure tested after repair and heat treatment (if
any). Repair welds shall also be examined by suitable nondestructive
examination techniques, including any techniques
specifically required of the primary weld.
9.4 The pipe shall be free of scale and contaminating iron
particles. Pickling, blasting, or surface finishing is not mandatory
when pipe is bright annealed. The purchaser is permitted
to request that a passivating treatment be applied.
10. Heat Analysis
10.1 An analysis of each heat of steel shall be made by the
plate manufacturer to determine the percentages of the elements
prescribed in Specification A 240/A 240M. The chemical
composition thus determined shall conform to the requirements
prescribed in Specification A 240/A 240M.
11. Product Analysis
11.1 For each lot of 500 ft [150 m] of pipe or fraction
thereof, analysis shall be made by the manufacturer from the
finished pipe of the plate and of the weld deposit. Drillings for
analysis may be taken from the mechanical test specimens. The
results of these analyses shall be reported to the purchaser or
the purchaser’s representative, and shall conform to the requirements
of Section 7, subject to the product analysis
tolerances of Table 1 in Specification A 480/A 480M.
11.2 If the analysis of one of the tests specified in 9.1 does
not conform to the requirements specified in Section 7,
analyses shall be made on additional pipe of double the original
number from the same lot, each of which shall conform to the
12. Tensile Requirements
12.1 The plate used in making the pipe shall conform to the
requirements as to tensile properties of the applicable specifications
listed in Table 1. Tension tests made by the plate
manufacturer shall qualify the plate material.
12.2 The transverse tension test taken across the welded
joint specimen shall have a tensile strength not less than the
specified minimum tensile strength of the plate.
13. Transverse Guided-Bend Weld Tests
13.1 Two bend test specimens shall be taken transversely
from the pipe. Except as provided in 13.2, one shall be subject
to a face guided-bend test and the second to a root guided-bend
test. One specimen shall be bent with the inside surface of the
pipe against the plunger, and the other with the outside surface
against the plunger.
13.2 For wall thicknesses over 3⁄8 in. [9.5 mm] but less than
3⁄4 in. [19 mm] side-bend tests may be made instead of the face
and root-bend tests. For specified wall thicknesses 3⁄4 in. [19
mm] and over, both specimens shall be subjected to the
side-bend tests. Side-bend specimens shall be bent so that one
of the side surfaces becomes the convex surface of the bend
13.3 The bend test shall be acceptable if no cracks or other
defects exceeding 1⁄8 in. [3 mm] in any direction is present in
the weld metal or between the weld and the pipe metal after
bending. Cracks that originate along the edges of the specimen
during testing, and that are less than 1⁄4 in. [6.5 mm] measured
in any direction shall not be considered.
14. Test Specimens and Methods of Testing
14.1 Transverse tension and bend test specimens shall be
taken from the end of the finished pipe; the transverse tension
and bend test specimens shall be flattened cold before final
machining to size.
14.2 As an alternative to the requirements of 14.1, it is
permitted to take the test specimens from a test plate of the
same material as the pipe that is attached to the end of the
cylinder and welded as a prolongation of the pipe longitudinal
14.3 Tension test specimens shall be made in accordance
with Section IX, Part QW, Paragraph QW-150 of the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and shall be one of the types
shown in QW-462.1 of that code.
14.3.1 Reduced-section specimens conforming to the requirements
given in QW-462.1(b) may be used for tension tests
on all thicknesses of pipe having outside diameter greater than
3 in. [76 mm].
14.3.2 Turned specimens conforming to the requirements of
QW-462.1(d) may be used for tension tests.
126.96.36.199 If turned specimens are used as given in 188.8.131.52
and 184.108.40.206, one complete set shall be made for each required
220.127.116.11 For thicknesses to and including 11⁄4 in. [32 mm], it
is permitted to use a single turned specimen.
18.104.22.168 For thicknesses over 11⁄4 in. [32 mm], multiple
specimens shall be cut through the full thickness of the weld
with their centers parallel to the material surface and not over
1 in. [25 mm] apart. The centers of the specimens adjacent to
material surfaces shall not exceed 5⁄8 in. [16 mm] from the
14.4 The test specimens shall not be cut from the pipe or test
plate until after final heat treatment.
15. Mechanical Tests Required
15.1 For the purposes of the tension and bend test requirements,
the term “lot” shall mean all pipe of the same grade,
permitted to include more that one heat of steel, within a 3⁄16-in
[4.7-mm] range of thickness and welded to the same weld
procedure, and when heat treated, done so to the same
heat-treating procedure and in the same furnace. The maximum
lot size shall be 200 linear ft [60 m] of pipe.
15.1.1 Transverse Tension Test—One test shall be made to
represent each lot of finished pipe.
15.1.2 Transverse Guided-Bend Weld Test—One test (two
specimens) shall be made to represent each lot of finished pipe.
15.2 Hydrostatic Test—Each length of pipe shall be subjected
to a hydrostatic test in accordance with Specification
A 999/A 999M, unless specifically exempted under the provision
of 15.3. Pressure shall be held for a sufficient time to
permit the inspector to examine the entire length of the welded
15.3 The purchaser, with the agreement of the manufacturer,
is permitted to complete the hydrostatic test requirement with
the system pressure test, performed at a pressure either lower
or higher than the specification test pressure, but in no case
shall the test pressure be lower than the system design pressure.
Each length of pipe furnished without the completed manufacturer’s
hydrostatic test shall include with the mandatory
marking the letters “NH.”
16. Radiographic Examination
16.1 For Classes 1, 3, and 4 pipe, all welded joints shall be
completely examined by radiography.
16.2 For Class 5 pipe, the welded joints shall be spot
radiographed to the extent of not less than 12 in. [300 mm] of
radiograph per 50 ft [15 m] of weld.
16.3 For Classes 1, 3, and 4 pipe, radiographic examination
shall be in accordance with the requirements of the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, latest edition,
16.4 For Class 5 pipe, radiographic examination shall be in
accordance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, latest edition,
16.5 Radiographic examination is permitted to be performed
prior to heat treatment.
17.1 Circumferentially welded joints of the same quality as
the longitudinal joints shall be permitted by agreement between
the manufacturer and the purchaser.
18. Product Marking
18.1 In addition to the marking prescribed in Specification
A 999/A 999M, the markings on each length of pipe shall
include the plate material designations as shown in Table 1, the
marking requirements of 6.3 and 15.3, and Class 1, 2, 3, or 4,
as appropriate (see 1.3).
18.2 Bar Coding—In addition to the requirements in 18.1,
bar coding is acceptable as a supplementary identification
method. Bar coding should be consistent with the Automotive
Industry Action Group (AIAG) standard prepared by the
Primary Metals Subcommittee of the AIAG Bar Code Project
19.1 arc welded steel pipe; austenitic stainless steel;
chromium-nickel steel; fusion welded steel pipe; high temperature
application; steel pipe; temperature service applications;
high; welded steel pipe
One or more of the following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified in the
purchase order. The purchaser is permitted to specify a different frequency of test or analysis than is
provided in the supplementary requirement. Subject to agreement between the purchaser and
manufacturer, it is permitted to modify the retest and retreatment provisions of these supplementary
S1. Product Analysis
S1.1 Product analysis shall be made on each length of pipe.
Individual lengths failing to conform to the chemical composition
requirements shall be rejected.
S2. Tension and Bend Tests
S2.1 Tension tests (Section 12) and bend tests (Section 13)
shall be made on specimens to represent each length of pipe.
Failure of any test specimen to meet the requirements shall be
cause for the rejection of the pipe length represented.
S3. Penetrant Oil and Powder Examination
S3.1 All welded joints shall be subjected to examination by
a penetrant oil and powder method. The details of the method
and the disposition of flaws detected shall be a matter for
agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
S4. Ferrite Control in Weld Deposits
S4.1 The ferrite content of the deposited weld metal in any
length of pipe shall be determined. The procedural details
pertaining to this subject (that is, welding; plate and weld
deposit chemistry; testing equipment and method; number and
location of test sites; and ferrite control limits) shall be a matter
for agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
S5. Stabilizing Heat Treatment
S5.1 Subsequent to the heat treatment required in 6.3,
Grades 321, 321H, 347, 347H, and 348 shall be given a
stabilization heat treatment at a temperature lower than that
used for the initial solution annealing heat treatment. The
temperature of stabilization heat treatment shall be at a
temperature as agreed upon between the purchaser and manufacturer.
S6. Intergranular Corrosion Test
S6.1 When specified, material shall pass intergranular corrosion
tests conducted by the manufacturer in accordance with
Practices A 262, Practice E.
NOTE S1—Practice E requires testing on the sensitized condition for
low carbon or stabilized grades, and on the as-shipped condition for other
S6.2 A stabilization heat treatment in accordance with
Supplementary Requirement S5 may be necessary and is
permitted in order to meet this requirement for the grades
containing titanium or columbium.